Chap 10 Flashcards Preview

BioPsych > Chap 10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chap 10 Deck (49)
Loading flashcards...
1

In males, the SRY gene causes the development of testes and in females, the SRY gene causes the development of ovaries.

False

2

The activating effects of hormones produce enduring structural effects.

False

3

The human sensitive period for genital formation occurs during the second trimester of pregnancy.

False

4

Levels of testosterone correlate positively with men's drive to seek sexual partners.

True

5

Late in pregnancy, the areas of the female rat brain involved in maternal behavior become more sensitive to estradiol.

True

6

An evolutionary explanation of mate preferences suggests that women prefer good providers because they need help during pregnancy and when caring for small children.

True

7

A genetic male with congenital adrenal hyperplasia will have genitals resembling those of a female.

False

8

Twin studies indicate that there is concordance for homosexual activity, but the magnitude of the effect has varied considerably across studies.

True

9

At an early stage of embryological development, before the influence of sex hormones, what is the appearance of a fetus's external genitals?

Both sexes have small "unisex" structures that could develop into either a penis or a clitoris.

10

Sex hormones affect neurons in several ways. Which of the following is not one of those ways?

Brain enzymes convert them into dopamine and other neurotransmitters.

11

What is the main difference between organizing effects and activating effects of hormones?

Organizing effects are long lasting, whereas activating effects are temporary.

12

If a developing mammal is exposed to high levels of both androgens and estrogens, its external anatomy will appear ________ . If it is exposed to low levels of both, its external anatomy will appear ________ .

masculine . . . feminine

13

How does sexual differentiation of the brain differ between rodents and primates?

In rodents, testosterone must be aromatized to estradiol before it affects developing neurons

14

How much a child plays with boys' toys is apparently increased by prenatal exposure to ________ and decreased by prenatal exposure to ________ .

testosterone... phthalates

15

In terms of neurotransmitter activity, how does the mechanism of erection differ from that of orgasm?

Erection depends on one set of dopamine receptors and orgasm depends on different dopamine receptors.

16

Compared to other men, what are the testosterone levels of married men?

Lower than average

17

At what time, if any, during the menstrual cycle do women's sexual desires tend to be highest, in women not taking birth-control pills?

Sexual desire is highest during the periovulatory period.

18

What effect, if any, do sex hormones have on people's ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion?

Testosterone impairs the ability to recognize emotional expressions.

19

What hormonal levels, if any, correlate with the amount of time and care that human fathers give their young children?

High levels of prolactin and low levels of testosterone

20

What is meant by "sexual selection"?

Evolution favors characteristics that make an individual more appealing to the opposite sex.

21

In a fetus with congenital adrenal hypertrophy (CAH), the adrenal gland produces ________ cortisol, and as a result, the pituitary directs the adrenal gland to produce ________ testosterone.

less than average . . . more than average

22

A girl's interest in boys' toys correlates positively with which of the following?

Exposure to testosterone before birth

23

What condition occurs if a male lacks the receptor that enables androgens to activate genes in a cell's nucleus?

Testicular feminization

24

When genetic males lacked the enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydroxytestosterone, what happened to their sexual development?

They looked female at birth but developed male structures at puberty

25

On average, how do heterosexual and homosexual men compare in height?

On average, heterosexual men are only very slightly taller.

26

Of the following, which is the LEAST plausible hypothesis for why natural selection has not eliminated genes for male homosexuality?

Some homosexual men have children.

---------
Maybe there is no gene for homosexuality. Instead, an environmental event produces an epigenetic effect that can be transmitted from one generation to the next.

Homosexual people might spread their genes by helping their brothers and sisters rear their children.

Perhaps the relatives of a homosexual male have more than an average number of children.

27

Which of the following would increase the probability that a boy will develop a homosexual orientation?

Having a biological older brother, even if he did not live in the same house

28

How might stress to a pregnant rat alter the sexual orientation of her male offspring?

Stress increases the release of endorphins in the hypothalamus.

29

In what way was INAH-3 distinctive for most of the homosexual men in LeVay's study and the follow-up research?

This nucleus had neurons with smaller than average volume.

30

The ________ are present in both male and female embryos, and are the precursors for the male internal reproductive structures.

Wolffian ducts

31

Which gene signals undeveloped fetal gonads to become testes?

SRY

32

In humans, the prominent estrogen is ________ .

estradiol

33

In humans, the sensitive period for determining whether a fetus will become male or female is during the ________ .

first trimester only

34

Which term describes hormonal effects that produce long-lasting structural changes?

organizing

35

Research with rodents has shown that ________ .

injecting a genetic male with estrogens produces little effect on his external anatomy

36

Researchers found that the sons of women with high urinary ________ levels during pregnancy show less interest in typically "male" toys and more interest in typically "female" toys than do sons of women with lower levels.

phthalate

37

People typically experience a state of relaxation shortly after orgasm as a result of ________ release.

oxytocin

38

Testosterone primes the MPOA and several other brain areas to release ________ , which facilitates erection of the penis in the male.

dopamine

39

One consequence of high estradiol and progesterone levels during pregnancy is fluctuating activity at the ________ receptor, which is responsible for nausea.

serotonin 3

40

Women not taking birth-control pills initiate sexual activity more often during the ________ phase than at any other time of their cycles.

periovulatory

41

On average, a man's ________ level decreases while his ________ level increases after a baby is born, especially if he spends hours a day interacting with the child.

testosterone; prolactin

42

In rodents, which substance secreted by the posterior pituitary gland is important for social behavior in many species, partly by facilitating olfactory recognition of other individuals?

vasopressin

43

In countries where women have good educational, economic, and employment opportunities, a woman is more likely to choose a partner close to her own age, indicating a(n) ________ component to mate choice in humans.

learned

44

The differences that result from an individual's self-identification as either male or female are properly known as ________ differences.

gender

45

Individuals born with intermediate sexual development are considered to be ________ .

intersex

46

Current recommendations for rearing an intersex child include ________ .

identifying the child as male or female based on the predominant external appearance

47

With respect to sexual orientation, ________ .

women are slower to discover their orientation than are men

48

Studies of the genetics of sexual orientation have found that ________ .

it is unlikely that a gene on the X chromosome plays a major role in homosexuality

49

Studies of brain anatomy have shown that, on average, ________ .

lesbian women's brains are slightly shifted in the male direction in some ways but not others