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Flashcards in Chap 8 Deck (52)
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1

Submariners can easily adjust to 18 hour days because their exposure to daylight is limited.

False

2

Light is critical to resetting circadian rhythms.

True

3

Alpha waves are characteristic of being hyperalert.

False

4

One hypothalamic axon pathway releases the inhibitory transmitter histamine.

False

5

Aquatic mammals have evolved the ability to sleep on one side of the brain at a time, ensuring they resurface to breathe even while asleep.

True

6

Sleep apnea refers to an impaired ability to breathe while sleeping.

True

7

Young adults deprived of a night's sleep show deficits on memory tasks.

True

8

According to the activation-synthesis hypothesis, a dream represents the brain's effort to make sense of sparse and distorted information.

True

9

What conclusion do researchers draw from the observation that workers on submarines are unable to adjust to a schedule of working 12 hours and resting 6 hours?

The human body generates a circadian rhythm.

10

Why do people in Antarctica during the winter often find it difficult to work together?

Their circadian rhythms drift out of phase with one another.

11

If workers rotate between working shifts at different times of day, what would be a good way to help them adjust to the night shift?

Use bright lighting during the night shift.

12

What tends to be characteristic of teenagers who are extreme "evening" types?

They get worse grades in school than their abilities would predict.

13

What evidence strongly indicates that the SCN produces the circadian rhythm itself?

SCN cells isolated from the body continue to produce a circadian rhythm.

14

Light resets the biological clock by a branch of the optic nerve, beginning with ________ and sending the input to ________ .

ganglion cells that do not require input from rods or cones . . . the SCN

15

If you want to get to sleep on time, what should you avoid?

Short-wavelength light late in the evening

16

The proteins Tim and Per reach their highest levels ________ . They ________ the activity of the genes that produce them.

at night... inhibit

17

Slow, large-amplitude EEG waves characterize which stage or stages of sleep?

Stages 3 and 4

18

Why is REM sleep also known as paradoxical sleep?

It is deep sleep in some ways and light in others.

19

At which time, if any, is stage 4 sleep most common?

Not immediately, but during the early part of the night's sleep

20

Of the following, which two neurotransmitters increase arousal in the brain?

Acetylcholine and histamine

21

Norepinephrine, released by the locus coeruleus, has which effect on behavior?

It increases attention to important information.

22

How do dolphins handle breathing while they are asleep?

Half of the brain sleeps while the other remains awake enough to surface and breathe.

23

What does PGO stand for (with regard to brain function)?

Pons-Geniculate-Occipital

24

If you awaken but find you temporarily cannot move your arms or legs, what is happening?

Most of your brain is awake, but part of your pons and medulla remain in REM sleep.

25

Of the following, which one is not associated with an increased probability of sleep apnea?

Being female

26

Narcolepsy is linked to a deficit of which neurotransmitter?

Orexin

27

When does sleepwalking usually occur?

During slow-wave sleep (Stages 3 and 4)

28

What do birds do about sleep during the time when they are migrating?

They eat during the day and fly at night, but decrease their need for sleep.

29

If we want to predict how many hours a day some species sleep, which of these questions would be most helpful in making that prediction?

What does the animal eat?

30

Which of the following occurs during sleep?

Certain synapses become weakened, enabling others to stand out by contrast.

31

Of the following groups, which one tends to spend the highest percentage of sleep in the REM stage?

infants

32

On which of the following points do the activation-synthesis hypothesis and the clinico-anatomical hypothesis agree?

Dreams begin with the brain's spontaneous activity combined with recent memories and any information the brain is receiving from the senses.

33

Bird migration is an example of an ________ .

endogenous circannual rhythm

34

A student who pulls several "all-nighters" in a row has likely disrupted an ________ .

endogenous circadian rhythm

35

The stimulus that resets a circadian rhythm is referred to as a ________ .

zeitgeber

36

Which type of stimulus is most often involved in resetting the internal clock among land animals?

light

37

Michael works the graveyard shift, from 10 at night to 6 in the morning. As a result, he ________ .

may continue to feel groggy at work even after years on the job

38

Vonda is traveling from her home in northern Maine to Hawaii at the end of the year. What should she keep in mind about jet lag?

Adjustment to jet lag can be stressful and actually increase cortisol.

39

Melatonin is released by the ________ .

pineal

40

The main driver of rhythms for sleep and body temperature is the ________ .

suprachiasmatic nucleus

41

Guy alternates between periods of sleep and moderate arousal, although even during the more aroused state, he shows no awareness of surroundings and no purposeful behavior. What term best describes Guy's state?

vegetative

42

Alpha waves are characteristic of ________ .

relaxation

43

What is paradoxical about paradoxical sleep?

It has characteristics of both deep and light sleep.

44

People who are awakened during ________ report dreams about 80%-90% of the time.

REM sleep

45

The ________ is usually inactive, especially during sleep, but it emits bursts of impulses in response to meaningful events.

locus coeruleus

46

The ________ , which contributes significantly to cortical arousal, has neurons that receive input from many sensory systems and generate spontaneous activity of their own.

pontomesencephalon

47

The axons releasing ________ extend from the hypothalamus to the basal forebrain and many other areas, enhancing wakefulness.

orexin

48

REM sleep is associated with a distinctive pattern of high-amplitude electrical potentials known as ________ waves.

PGO

49

Dreamlike experiences, which an individual has trouble distinguishing from reality and often occur at the onset of sleep, are known as ________ .

hypnagogic hallucinations

50

During sleep, a mammal's body temperature and muscle activity decreases, most likely in an effort to ________ .

save energy

51

Who is likely to be getting the most REM sleep?

Danielle, a six-month old infant

52

Which perspective regards dreams as thinking that takes place under unusual conditions?

clinico-anatomical hypothesis