Chap 26 Textbook Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chap 26 Textbook Questions Deck (26)
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1

Solute contributes to the movement of water between
cells and the surrounding medium by ________.
a. osmotic pressure
b. hydrostatic pressure
c. Brownian movement
d. random motion

a. osmotic pressure

2

A cation has a(n) ________ charge.
a. neutral
b. positive
c. alternating
d. negative

b. positive

3

Interstitial fluid (IF) is ________.
a. the fluid in the cytosol of the cells
b. the fluid component of blood
c. the fluid that bathes all of the body’s cells except for blood cells
d. the intracellular fluids found between membranes

c. the fluid that bathes all of the body’s cells except for blood cells

4

The largest amount of water comes into the body via
________.
a. metabolism
b. foods
c. liquids
d. humidified air

c. liquids

5

The largest amount of water leaves the body via
________.
a. the GI tract
b. the skin as sweat
c. expiration
d. urine

d. urine

6

Insensible water loss is water lost via ________.
a. skin evaporation and in air from the lungs
b. urine
c. excessive sweating
d. vomiting or diarrhea

a. skin evaporation and in air from the lungs

7

How soon after drinking a large glass of water will a
person start increasing their urine output?
a. 5 minutes
b. 30 minutes
c. 1 hour
d. 3 hours

b. 30 minutes

8

Bone serves as a mineral reserve for which two ions?
a. sodium and potassium
b. calcium and phosphate
c. chloride and bicarbonate
d. calcium and bicarbonate

b. calcium and phosphate

9

Electrolytes are lost mostly through ________.
a. renal function
b. sweating
c. feces
d. respiration

a. renal function

10

The major cation in extracellular fluid is ________.
a. sodium
b. potassium
c. chloride
d. bicarbonate

a. sodium

11

The major cation in intracellular fluid is ________.
a. sodium
b. potassium
c. chloride
d. bicarbonate

b. potassium

12

The major anion in extracellular fluid is ________.
a. sodium
b. potassium
c. chloride
d. bicarbonate

c. chloride

13

Most of the body’s calcium is found in ________.
a. teeth
b. bone
c. plasma
d. extracellular fluids

c. chloride

14

Abnormally increased blood levels of sodium are
termed ________.
a. hyperkalemia
b. hyperchloremia
c. hypernatremia
d. hypercalcemia

c. hypernatremia

15

The ion with the lowest blood level is ________.
a. sodium
b. potassium
c. chloride
d. bicarbonate

b. potassium

16

Which two ions are most affected by aldosterone?
a. sodium and potassium
b. chloride and bicarbonate
c. calcium and phosphate
d. sodium and phosphate

a. sodium and potassium

17

Which of the following is the most important buffer
inside red blood cells?
a. plasma proteins
b. hemoglobin
c. phosphate buffers
d. bicarbonate: carbonic acid buffer

b. hemoglobin

18

. Which explanation best describes why plasma proteins
can function as buffers?
a. Plasma proteins combine with bicarbonate to
make a stronger buffer.
b. Plasma proteins are immune to damage from
acids.
c. Proteins have both positive and negative charges
on their surface.
d. Proteins are alkaline.

c. Proteins have both positive and negative charges
on their surface.

19

The buffer that is adjusted to control acid-base balance
is ________.
a. plasma protein
b. hemoglobin
c. phosphate buffer
d. bicarbonate: carbonic acid buffer

d. bicarbonate: carbonic acid buffer

20

Carbonic acid levels are controlled through the
________.
a. respiratory system
b. renal system
c. digestive system
d. metabolic rate of cells

a. respiratory system

21

Bicarbonate ion concentrations in the blood are
controlled through the ________.
a. respiratory system
b. renal system
c. digestive system
d. metabolic rate of cells

b. renal system

22

Which reaction is catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase?
a. HPO4
2-+H+ ↔ H2 PO4-
b. CO2
+ H2 O ↔ H2CO3
c. H2 PO4 − +OH− ↔ HPO4
2 − +H2 O
d. H2CO3 ↔ HCO3 − + H+

b. CO2
+ H2 O ↔ H2CO3

23

Which of the following is a cause of metabolic
acidosis?
a. excessive HCl loss
b. increased aldosterone
c. diarrhea
d. prolonged use of diuretics

c. diarrhea

24

Which of the following is a cause of respiratory
acidosis?
a. emphysema
b. low blood K+
c. increased aldosterone
d. increased blood ketones

a. emphysema

25

At a pH of 7.40, the carbonic acid ratio is ________.
a. 35:1
b. 4:1
c. 20:1
d. 3:1

c. 20:1

26

. Which of the following is characterized as metabolic
alkalosis?
a. increased pH, decreased pCO2, decreased HCO3

b. increased pH, increased pCO2, increased HCO3

c. decreased pH, decreased pCO2, decreased
HCO3

d. decreased pH, increased pCO2, increased HCO3

b. increased pH, increased pCO2, increased HCO3