Chap. 3 - neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, behavior Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chap. 3 - neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, behavior Deck (96)
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1

The primary function of the nervous system

To transfer and exchange information

2

The basic cellular unit of the nervous system

The neuron

3

What does a neuron do, primarily?

Conduct impulses

4

Three components of the neuron

Cell body/soma
Stem/axon
Dendrites

5

The soma contains...

Nucleus
Cytoplasm

6

The axon (or stem) does what?

Transmits signals away from the soma to connect with other neurons and cells

7

The function of dendrites

To collect incoming signals and to send the signal toward the soma

8

Two divisions of the nervous system

Central Nervous System (CNS)
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

9

Two components of the CNS

Brain
Spinal Cord

10

The PNS connects the CNS to _____, _____, and _____

Receptors, muscles, and glands

11

When the cranial nerves exit the brain stem, they are part of the _____ Nervous System

Peripheral

12

The PNS is composed of two systems:

Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System

13

The somatic nervous system conveys info to _____ _____ and is responsible for _____ _____

Skeletal muscles
Voluntary movement

14

The autonomic nervous system - 3 functions

Maintain homeostasis
Convey info from CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
Responsible for involuntary movement

15

Autonomic nervous system - two divisions

Sympathetic nervous system
Parasympathetic nervous system

16

Sympathetic nervous system - excitatory or inhibitory? Increase or decrease organ activity?

Excitatory
Increase

17

Parasympathetic nervous system - excitatory or inhibitory? Increase or decrease organ activity?

Inhibitory
Decrease

18

Sympathetic nervous system is "_____ __ _____" and parasympathetic is "_____ __ _____"

Fight or flight
Rest and digest

19

White matter

The myelinated axons of neurons

20

Gray matter

Nerve cell bodies and dendrites
The "working area" of the brain containing the synapses

21

Why is the brain wrinkled?

To increase surface area, thus working area and cell communication

22

Sulci

Small shallow grooves on the brain's surface

23

Fissures

Deeper grooves extending into the brain

24

Gyri

Raised tissue areas on the brain

25

Two parts of the brain

Cerebrum
Brain stem

26

Which hemisphere of the cerebrum is dominant in most people?

The left (it controls right sided movement)

27

The two hemispheres are connected by the _____ _____, which is composed of _____ matter

Corpus callosum
White matter

28

The four lobes of the cerebral hemispheres

Frontal
Temporal
Occipital
Parietal

29

Frontal lobe functions include (6)

Motor function (voluntary)
Premotor area (coordination of multiple muscles)
Association cortex (memory and decision making)
Executive function
Expressive speech (Broca's area)
Personality

30

Executive functioning includes...

Working memory
Reasoning
Planning
Prioritizing
Sequencing behavior
Insight
Judgment
Intelligence
Abstraction