Chap. 3 - neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, behavior Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chap. 3 - neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, behavior Deck (96):
1

The primary function of the nervous system

To transfer and exchange information

2

The basic cellular unit of the nervous system

The neuron

3

What does a neuron do, primarily?

Conduct impulses

4

Three components of the neuron

Cell body/soma
Stem/axon
Dendrites

5

The soma contains...

Nucleus
Cytoplasm

6

The axon (or stem) does what?

Transmits signals away from the soma to connect with other neurons and cells

7

The function of dendrites

To collect incoming signals and to send the signal toward the soma

8

Two divisions of the nervous system

Central Nervous System (CNS)
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

9

Two components of the CNS

Brain
Spinal Cord

10

The PNS connects the CNS to _____, _____, and _____

Receptors, muscles, and glands

11

When the cranial nerves exit the brain stem, they are part of the _____ Nervous System

Peripheral

12

The PNS is composed of two systems:

Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System

13

The somatic nervous system conveys info to _____ _____ and is responsible for _____ _____

Skeletal muscles
Voluntary movement

14

The autonomic nervous system - 3 functions

Maintain homeostasis
Convey info from CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
Responsible for involuntary movement

15

Autonomic nervous system - two divisions

Sympathetic nervous system
Parasympathetic nervous system

16

Sympathetic nervous system - excitatory or inhibitory? Increase or decrease organ activity?

Excitatory
Increase

17

Parasympathetic nervous system - excitatory or inhibitory? Increase or decrease organ activity?

Inhibitory
Decrease

18

Sympathetic nervous system is "_____ __ _____" and parasympathetic is "_____ __ _____"

Fight or flight
Rest and digest

19

White matter

The myelinated axons of neurons

20

Gray matter

Nerve cell bodies and dendrites
The "working area" of the brain containing the synapses

21

Why is the brain wrinkled?

To increase surface area, thus working area and cell communication

22

Sulci

Small shallow grooves on the brain's surface

23

Fissures

Deeper grooves extending into the brain

24

Gyri

Raised tissue areas on the brain

25

Two parts of the brain

Cerebrum
Brain stem

26

Which hemisphere of the cerebrum is dominant in most people?

The left (it controls right sided movement)

27

The two hemispheres are connected by the _____ _____, which is composed of _____ matter

Corpus callosum
White matter

28

The four lobes of the cerebral hemispheres

Frontal
Temporal
Occipital
Parietal

29

Frontal lobe functions include (6)

Motor function (voluntary)
Premotor area (coordination of multiple muscles)
Association cortex (memory and decision making)
Executive function
Expressive speech (Broca's area)
Personality

30

Executive functioning includes...

Working memory
Reasoning
Planning
Prioritizing
Sequencing behavior
Insight
Judgment
Intelligence
Abstraction

31

Broca's area is located in the _____ lobe and is responsible for _____ speech

Frontal
Expressive

32

Wernicke's area is located on the _____ lobe and is responsible for _____ speech

Temporal
Receptive

33

Injury or problems to the frontal lobe can impact (3)

Personality changes
Emotional changes
Intellectual changes

34

Temporal lobe functions include (5)

Receptive speech/language comprehension (Wernicke's area)
Primary auditory area
Memory
Emotion
Integration of vision with other sensory info

35

Injury or problems in the temporal lobe can lead to (3)

Visual or auditory hallucinations
Aphasia
Amnesia

36

Occipital lobe functions include (2)

Primary visual cortex
Integrations of vision with other sensory info

37

Injury or problems in the occipital lobe can lead to (3)

Blindness
Visual field defects
Visual hallucinations

38

Parietal lobe functions include (3)

Primary sensory area
Taste
Reading and writing

39

Injury or problems in the parietal lobe can lead to (2)

Sensory-perceptual disturbances
Agnosia

40

The cerebral cortex primarily controls the _____ that make us "human," like _____, _____, _____, _____, and _____ _____.

Behaviors like speech, cognition, judgment, perception, and motor function.

41

The limbic system is responsible for _____ and _____.

Emotion and memory

42

Four components of the limbic system:

Hypothalamus
Thalamus
Hippocampus
Amygdala

43

Hypothalamus - name some regulatory functions

Appetite, hunger, thirst
Water balance
Circadian rhythms
Body temperature
Libido
Hormonal regulation

44

Thalamus regulates _____ and _____

Emotion and memory

45

Thalamus relays all senses except _____

Smell

46

Hippocampus converts _____-_____ _____ into _____-_____ _____

short-term memory into long-term memory

47

Amygdala mediates (4)

Mood
Fear
Emotion
Aggression

48

Amygdala involved with this one sense

Smell

49

Basal ganglia also known as _____ _____

Corpus striatum

50

Basal ganglia most closely associated with

Somatic motor activity

51

The extrapyramidal motor nerve track is located in the

Basal ganglia

52

Problems or injury in the basal ganglia can lead to (3)

Bradykinesias
Hyperkinesias
Dystonia

53

Brainstem - 5 areas

Midbrain
Pons
Cerebellum
Medulla
Reticular formation system

54

Midbrain - 2 areas

Ventral segmental area
Substantia nigra

55

Dopamine synthesis occurs in the _____ _____

Substantia nigra

56

The pons contains the _____ _____, which synthesizes which neurotransmitter?

Locus ceruleus
Norepinephrine

57

Medulla works with the pons to control...

Autonomic function
Internal body functions

58

Cerebellum controls (3)

Equilibrium
Balance
Posture

59

Cerebellar hemispheres have ipsalateral control, meaning they control the ____ side of the body. The cerebral hemispheres have contralateral control, meaning they control the ____ side of the body.

ipsalateral - same side
contralateral - opposite side

60

Test for cerebellar functioning

Romberg

61

A positive Romberg test will demonstrate which: balance, or a lack of balance? indicating cerebellar function or dysfunction?

Lack of balance
Dysfunction

62

Problem or injury to the cerebellum leads to _____

Ataxia

63

The reticular formation is known as the "_____" brain

Primitive

64

The reticular formation controls

Involuntary movement
Reflex
Muscle tone
Vitals
BP
RR

65

The reticular formation innervates (3)

Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Cortex

66

Two types of cells in the nervous system

Glia
Neurons

67

Glial function

Form the myelin sheath around axons
Provide protection and support

68

Neuron function

Conduct impulses

69

Dendrites conduct impulses _____ the cell body, and axons conduct impulses _____ _____ the cell body

Toward
Away from

70

Two phases of an action potential

Depolarization
Repolarization

71

Depolarization is the _____ phase of the action potential; it is an _____ response

Initial
Excitatory

72

Repolarization is the _____ phase of the action potential; it is an _____ response

Restoration
Inhibitory

73

In depolarization, which ions go which direction?

Sodium and calcium enter the cell

74

In repolarization, which ions go which direction?

Potassium leaves the cell and chloride enters the cell

75

Four categories of neurotransmitters

Monoamines
Amino acids
Cholinergics
Neuropeptides

76

Monoamine neurotransmitters (4)

Dopamine
Norepinephrine
Epinephrine
Serotonin

77

Dopamine is produced in the...

Substantia nigra of the midbrain

78

Norepinephrine is produced in the...

Locus ceruleus of the pons

79

Epinephrine is produced by the...

Adrenal glands

80

Serotonin is produced in the...

Raphe nuclei of the brainstem

81

Amino acid NTs (4)

GABA
Glutamate
Glycine
Aspartate

82

Cholinergic NT

Acetylcholine

83

Neuropeptides - 2 types

Nonopioid type
Opioid type

84

Nonopioid type neuropeptides (2)

Substance P
Somatostatin

85

Opioid type neuropeptides (3)

Endorphins
Enkephalins
Dynorphins

86

Acetylcholine deficiency = (2)

Alzheimer's
Memory deficits

87

Dopamine deficiency =

Parkinson's

88

Dopamine excess =

SZO

89

Norepi deficiency =

Depression

90

Serotonin deficiency = (3)

Depression
OCD
SZO

91

GABA deficiency =

Anxiety

92

Glutamate excess =

Bipolar
Psychosis

93

Opioid neuropeptide deficiency =

Substance abuse

94

Structural imaging tests (2)

CT scan
MRI

95

Functional imaging tests (4)

EEG
SPECT
PET
MEG (magnetoencephalography)

96

Structural/functional combined tests

fMRI
3fEMRI (3-dimensional event-related functional MRI)
Fluorine magnetic spectroscopy
Dopamine D2 receptor binding