Flashcards in Chap. 3 - neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, behavior Deck (96):
The primary function of the nervous system
To transfer and exchange information
The basic cellular unit of the nervous system
What does a neuron do, primarily?
Three components of the neuron
The soma contains...
The axon (or stem) does what?
Transmits signals away from the soma to connect with other neurons and cells
The function of dendrites
To collect incoming signals and to send the signal toward the soma
Two divisions of the nervous system
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Two components of the CNS
The PNS connects the CNS to _____, _____, and _____
Receptors, muscles, and glands
When the cranial nerves exit the brain stem, they are part of the _____ Nervous System
The PNS is composed of two systems:
Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
The somatic nervous system conveys info to _____ _____ and is responsible for _____ _____
The autonomic nervous system - 3 functions
Convey info from CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
Responsible for involuntary movement
Autonomic nervous system - two divisions
Sympathetic nervous system
Parasympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic nervous system - excitatory or inhibitory? Increase or decrease organ activity?
Parasympathetic nervous system - excitatory or inhibitory? Increase or decrease organ activity?
Sympathetic nervous system is "_____ __ _____" and parasympathetic is "_____ __ _____"
Fight or flight
Rest and digest
The myelinated axons of neurons
Nerve cell bodies and dendrites
The "working area" of the brain containing the synapses
Why is the brain wrinkled?
To increase surface area, thus working area and cell communication
Small shallow grooves on the brain's surface
Deeper grooves extending into the brain
Raised tissue areas on the brain
Two parts of the brain
Which hemisphere of the cerebrum is dominant in most people?
The left (it controls right sided movement)
The two hemispheres are connected by the _____ _____, which is composed of _____ matter
The four lobes of the cerebral hemispheres
Frontal lobe functions include (6)
Motor function (voluntary)
Premotor area (coordination of multiple muscles)
Association cortex (memory and decision making)
Expressive speech (Broca's area)
Executive functioning includes...
Broca's area is located in the _____ lobe and is responsible for _____ speech
Wernicke's area is located on the _____ lobe and is responsible for _____ speech
Injury or problems to the frontal lobe can impact (3)
Temporal lobe functions include (5)
Receptive speech/language comprehension (Wernicke's area)
Primary auditory area
Integration of vision with other sensory info
Injury or problems in the temporal lobe can lead to (3)
Visual or auditory hallucinations
Occipital lobe functions include (2)
Primary visual cortex
Integrations of vision with other sensory info
Injury or problems in the occipital lobe can lead to (3)
Visual field defects
Parietal lobe functions include (3)
Primary sensory area
Reading and writing
Injury or problems in the parietal lobe can lead to (2)
The cerebral cortex primarily controls the _____ that make us "human," like _____, _____, _____, _____, and _____ _____.
Behaviors like speech, cognition, judgment, perception, and motor function.
The limbic system is responsible for _____ and _____.
Emotion and memory
Four components of the limbic system:
Hypothalamus - name some regulatory functions
Appetite, hunger, thirst
Thalamus regulates _____ and _____
Emotion and memory
Thalamus relays all senses except _____
Hippocampus converts _____-_____ _____ into _____-_____ _____
short-term memory into long-term memory
Amygdala mediates (4)
Amygdala involved with this one sense
Basal ganglia also known as _____ _____
Basal ganglia most closely associated with
Somatic motor activity
The extrapyramidal motor nerve track is located in the
Problems or injury in the basal ganglia can lead to (3)
Brainstem - 5 areas
Reticular formation system
Midbrain - 2 areas
Ventral segmental area
Dopamine synthesis occurs in the _____ _____
The pons contains the _____ _____, which synthesizes which neurotransmitter?
Medulla works with the pons to control...
Internal body functions
Cerebellum controls (3)
Cerebellar hemispheres have ipsalateral control, meaning they control the ____ side of the body. The cerebral hemispheres have contralateral control, meaning they control the ____ side of the body.
ipsalateral - same side
contralateral - opposite side
Test for cerebellar functioning
A positive Romberg test will demonstrate which: balance, or a lack of balance? indicating cerebellar function or dysfunction?
Lack of balance
Problem or injury to the cerebellum leads to _____
The reticular formation is known as the "_____" brain
The reticular formation controls
The reticular formation innervates (3)
Two types of cells in the nervous system
Form the myelin sheath around axons
Provide protection and support
Dendrites conduct impulses _____ the cell body, and axons conduct impulses _____ _____ the cell body
Two phases of an action potential
Depolarization is the _____ phase of the action potential; it is an _____ response
Repolarization is the _____ phase of the action potential; it is an _____ response
In depolarization, which ions go which direction?
Sodium and calcium enter the cell
In repolarization, which ions go which direction?
Potassium leaves the cell and chloride enters the cell
Four categories of neurotransmitters
Monoamine neurotransmitters (4)
Dopamine is produced in the...
Substantia nigra of the midbrain
Norepinephrine is produced in the...
Locus ceruleus of the pons
Epinephrine is produced by the...
Serotonin is produced in the...
Raphe nuclei of the brainstem
Amino acid NTs (4)
Neuropeptides - 2 types
Nonopioid type neuropeptides (2)
Opioid type neuropeptides (3)
Acetylcholine deficiency = (2)
Dopamine deficiency =
Dopamine excess =
Norepi deficiency =
Serotonin deficiency = (3)
GABA deficiency =
Glutamate excess =
Opioid neuropeptide deficiency =
Structural imaging tests (2)
Functional imaging tests (4)