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Flashcards in Chap 3.3 Slides Deck (26)
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______ was located south of Egypt along the Nile

What were its geographic boundaries?


Boundaries –Blue Nile, White Nile flow together to form Nile


Why did Nubians depend on the Nile?

Nubians depended on Nile 

- Landscape made farming difficult

- Nile flows through rocky mountains in Nubia


What were the resources that Nubia had?

•Nubia had great mineral wealth

•Mines produced gold, granite, precious stones

•Goods traded through Nubia included animal skins, ivory, ebony, slaves


What were Nubia's people like?

•Egyptian writings explain Nubia

•Nubians skilled potters, expert traders and archers


What did Egyptians call Nubia?

What were Nubian hired as?

•Egyptians called Nubia the Land of the Nine Bows

•Some Egyptian rulers hired Nubian archers as police, soldiers


Nubia was wealthy at the same time as Egypt's _______

•Nubia formed at same time as Egypt’s Old Kingdom

•Nubia possessed great wealth


How did Nubia and Egypt relate to each other?

Who conquered whom?

•Nubia and Egypt became rivals

•Egypt conquered Nubia during Middle Kingdom

•Nubia adopted Egyptian culture


What powerful southern state began to develop?

Northern Nubia was controlled by Egypt during the Middle Kingdom, while a powerful southern Nubian state called Kush began to develop


When did Egypt's Middle Kingdom collapse?

•Egypt’s Middle Kingdom collapsed around 1700 BC


Kush expanded to rule all of _______ (where?)

What was its alliance?

What increased?

•Kush expanded to rule all Nubia

–Alliance with Hyksos

–Trade increased


Who conquered the Kush?

•New Kingdom Egyptians conquered Kush, 1500 BC


How long did Egypt rule Kush?

What did Egyptian rulers build?

•Egypt ruled 400 years

•Egyptian rulers built temples, monuments throughout Kush


How and when did Kush regain power?

•Kush regained power after reign of Ramses the Great

•Free of Egyptian control by 1100 BC


What kingdom grew in 750 BC?

•New Kushite kingdom, 750 BC

•Began to grow and strengthen


Where did Kush's rulers expand?

•Kush’s rulers decided to expand power to a weakened Egypt after fall of New Kingdom

•Piankhi led Kushites north into Egypt


Who was Piankhi?

What did he accomplish?

•Described as compassionate ruler, ruthless warrior who conquered all of Egypt

•Kushite rulers held power about a century


In mid-600s, who took Egypt?

What happened to Kushite pharaohs?

•Mid-600s BC, Assyrians took Egypt, pushed Kushite pharaohs back into Nubia


What was Kushite Culture?

•Kushite pharaohs, guardians of Egyptian tradition

–Had bodies mummified, buried in pyramids

–Adopted Egyptian hieroglyphics as writing system


What Kushite culture was different from Egyptian culture?

–Did not adopt Egyptian style of dressing

–Statues show distinctly Nubian features, clothing

–Statues show pharaohs wearing crown with two cobras, symbol of union of Egypt and Kush


Where did Kushites move its capital to?

There are few records for the period immediately following the Kushite expulsion from Egypt.

However in the mid-200s BC, the Kushites moved their capital farther south along the Nile from Napata to Meroë.


What was in the City of Meroë?

•Near junction of two rivers

•“Island of Meroë”

•Area home to many species of wild animals


What was the mineral most abundant?


•Abundant mineral resources nearby

Iron also plentiful

–Most valuable product

–Shipped in Nile Valley

–Wealth supported expansion


What did the later Kush culture created?

•Abandoned some Egyptian culture

•Created own writing system


What lead to decline of Meroe?

- Economy strong as long as trade thrived

- Decline in trade began in 200s AD

- As economy declined, so did kingdom


After _____ invaded Meroe, what happened to Kushite civilization?

- Aksum invaded,

- destroyed Meroë in 350 AD

- Kushite civilization faded


What were the 4 factors in decline of Meroe?

•Competition for goods reduced demands for Kushite exports

•Trade routes linking Meroë to outside world disturbed by raids

•Centuries of iron making took toll on Nubian forests

•Kushites could no longer work iron to make tools they needed