Chap 9 Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chap 9 Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) Deck (11)
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What are types of CVA?

- Ischemic
- Hemorrhagic
- Intracerebral
- Subarachoid
- Thrombotic
- Embolic


CVA epidemiology?

- Second leading cause of death world wide – 4.6 million annually
- United States’ third leading cause of death and disability – 700,000 cases per year – 100,000 recurrent strokes per year


Atrial Fibrillation?

– Affects 2 million Americans – Two atria quiver
– Heart pumps blood inefficiently resulting in pooling of blood – leads to thrombi (blockage at point of origin)
– Increases risk of CVA five fold


What are the risk factors of CVA?

- Oral contraceptives
- Menopause due to estrogen changes
- Diabetics
- Familial history of CVA
- Carotid Bruit – abnormal sound in carotid artery


Ischemic CVA

- Blockage in cerebral blood vessel
- Thrombus or embolus (foreign object that at a distant site, circulates in bloodstream and becomes lodged in blood vessel)
- 85% CVAs – 60% thrombotic; 40% embolic


what are the signs and symptoms of Hemorrhagic CVA?

- Inability to stand or walk = Papillary malalignment
- Nausea or vomiting
- Altered level of consciousness – yawning to coma


what are the signs and symptoms of Ischemic CVA?

- Altered level of consciousness – (yawning to coma) – loss of consciousness uncommon
- Pupils unequal and dilated
- Confusion
- Dizziness
- Change in balance or coordination (ataxia)
- Vision changes – loss of half the visual
- Deviation of tongue
- Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) = Speech changes


what is Subarachnoid CVA?

- Occurs when blood vessel on surface of brain ruptures and bleeds into subarachnoid space
- Blood places pressure on cerebellum causing pressure and damage to brain cells


what is Intracerebral CVA?

- Twice as common
- Occurs when defective artery within the
brain bursts
- Surrounding tissue fills with blood
- Blood places pressure on adjacent tissues
- Due to ruptured artery other areas of brain ischemic leading to additional damage


Hemorrhagic CVA

- Rupture of a blood vessel
- 15% of all CVAs
- Factors: hypertension, anticoagulation, tumor, substance abuse, aneurysm (weakening in blood vessel wall – with added pressure ruptures)


Ischemic CVA

- Core - central zone of ischemic tissue
- Penumbra – surrounding tissue receiving diminished blood supply
-- Potentially salvageable if blood supply restored quickly