Flashcards in Chap 9 Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) Deck (11)
What are types of CVA?
- Second leading cause of death world wide – 4.6 million annually
- United States’ third leading cause of death and disability – 700,000 cases per year – 100,000 recurrent strokes per year
– Affects 2 million Americans – Two atria quiver
– Heart pumps blood inefficiently resulting in pooling of blood – leads to thrombi (blockage at point of origin)
– Increases risk of CVA five fold
What are the risk factors of CVA?
- Oral contraceptives
- Menopause due to estrogen changes
- Familial history of CVA
- Carotid Bruit – abnormal sound in carotid artery
- Blockage in cerebral blood vessel
- Thrombus or embolus (foreign object that at a distant site, circulates in bloodstream and becomes lodged in blood vessel)
- 85% CVAs – 60% thrombotic; 40% embolic
what are the signs and symptoms of Hemorrhagic CVA?
- Inability to stand or walk = Papillary malalignment
- Nausea or vomiting
- Altered level of consciousness – yawning to coma
what are the signs and symptoms of Ischemic CVA?
- Altered level of consciousness – (yawning to coma) – loss of consciousness uncommon
- Pupils unequal and dilated
- Change in balance or coordination (ataxia)
- Vision changes – loss of half the visual
- Deviation of tongue
- Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) = Speech changes
what is Subarachnoid CVA?
- Occurs when blood vessel on surface of brain ruptures and bleeds into subarachnoid space
- Blood places pressure on cerebellum causing pressure and damage to brain cells
what is Intracerebral CVA?
- Twice as common
- Occurs when defective artery within the
- Surrounding tissue fills with blood
- Blood places pressure on adjacent tissues
- Due to ruptured artery other areas of brain ischemic leading to additional damage
- Rupture of a blood vessel
- 15% of all CVAs
- Factors: hypertension, anticoagulation, tumor, substance abuse, aneurysm (weakening in blood vessel wall – with added pressure ruptures)