Chapter 19 (Epistaxis) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19 (Epistaxis) Deck (11)
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1

anterior epistaxis

- oozing blood
- bright red blood

2

posterior epistaxis

- profuse bleeding
- dark red blood
- gagging
- coughing
- vomiting

3

what are the local epistaxis etiologies?

- allergies
- cocaine
- environmental irritants
- foreign bodies
- nasal sprays
- neoplasms
- digital manipulation

4

local epistaxis etiologies

- septal deviation or perforation
- sinusitis
- trauma
- upper respiratory infection
- sneezing

5

systemic epistaxis etiologies

- anemia
- anticoagulant
- blood dyscrasia
- COPD
- hypertension
a. 3 times more likely to have epistaxis
b. BP will rise during epistaxis

6

what are the signs and symptoms of epistaxis?

- blood exuding from nasal cavity
- anterior- ooze and bright red blood
- posterior- profuse and dar red blood
- tend to drain into oral cavity- causing gagging, coughing, and may vomit blood

7

treatment of epistaxis

- mechanism of injury and define severity to determine course of action
- wear PPE
- ensure airway, breathing and circulation
- suction oral cavity if necessary
- position upright with head tilted forward

8

treatment of epistaxis

- apply direct pressure by pinching lower part of nose for 10-20 mins
-breathe through mouth
- have basin available
- ice pack over bridge of nose
- patient not blow

9

treatment of epistaxis

- if bleeding does not stop intact EMS
- cauterization or packing may be necessary
- lab tests may be performed to determine etiology

10

epistaxis prevention

- elevate head for 4 hours to prevent reoccurrence
- do not blow for several hours
- avoid heavy lifting and bending at wrist for 24 hours
- use humidifier to prevent dryness

11

prevention of epistaxis

- lubricate cream to nostrils 1-3 times daily
- increase water intake
- avoid aspirin