# Chappy 2: Research Methods Flashcards Preview

## Psych Test 1 (Chappy 1-4) > Chappy 2: Research Methods > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chappy 2: Research Methods Deck (14)
1
Q

define confounding variables

A

Two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects

extraneous + IV = researcher cannot figure out which impacted DV

2
Q

Correlation

A

degree to which two variables relate - does not imply causation

3
Q

Correlation coefficient

A

Numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables, positive and negative and how strong

Positive: co-vary in the same direction

negative: vary in opposing directions (has - sign)

coefficient can vary between 0 and +1 (+) or 0 and -1 (-)

4
Q

Descriptive Stats

A

used to organize/summarize data

Mean - average
Median - middle number
Mode - most frequently occurring

5
Q

Variability

A

how much scores deviate from each other and the mean

standard deviation:
62- 1sd
95 - 2sd
99- 3sd

6
Q

Normal distribution

A

symmetrical/bell shaped curve - pattern in which human characteristics are dispersed in society
Very important for wide range of inferential stats

7
Q

Response set

A

tendency to respond in a particular way

8
Q

Halo effect

A

overall evaluation spill over to influence more specific ratings

9
Q

Statistical significance

A

There is a small probability that the observed findings are due to chance

10
Q

Three criteria to establish cause

third variable problem

A

Two variables must be associated
One variable must obviously proceed the other (cause comes before effect)
No other variable may cause the effect

Third variable problem: IV + DV and ?, ex: children’s/vocabulary and age

11
Q

inferential statistics

A

Deals with methods for making appropriate inferences about populations on basis of samples
Allow researchers to calculate precisely the probability of making a mistake

12
Q

Case studies

A

In depth study of exceptional individuals/groups, ex: shereshevsky - synesthesia

13
Q

Naturalistic observation

A

Careful observation of behaviour w/out intervention, ex: collett + marsh - collision avoidance on a pedestrian crossing
Reactivity: subjects’ behaviour is altered by observer

14
Q

Survey Research

A

questionnaires/interviews to gather info