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Anatomy

'A cutting open'

Study of internal and external structures of the body & the physical relationships amount body parts (4)

Ex: examining how a muscle attaches to the skeleton.

Provides clues about functions (5)

1

Physiology

The study of how living organisms perform their vital functions (4)

Ex: considering how a muscle contracts or what forces a contracting muscle exerts on the skeleton

- cell: study of the functions of cells & cornerstone of human physiology. Considers event at both a chemical and molecular level, inside and between cells
- organ: study of the physiology of specific organs
- systematic: all aspects of the functioning of specific organ systems
- pathological: study of e effects of diseases on organ function or systemic function

Can on,y be explained in terms of underlying anatomy (5)

2

Medical terminology

Involves the use of:
- prefixes (word elements that are attached to the beginning of a word to modify their meaning but cannot stand alone)
- suffixes (word elements or letters attached to the end of a word or word part to form anouther term)
- word roots (basic meaningful parts of a term that cannot be broken down into anouther word with anouther definition)
- combining forms (independent words or word roots that occur in combination with word roots, prefixes, etc to build a new term)
to construct terms related to the body in health and disease.

Often from Greek or Latin (4)

3

Eponyms

Commemorative names (diseases and medical terminology named after scientist and or victim) -----most have since been flipped to more precise terms. (4)

4

Gross (macroscopic) anatomy

Involves the examination of relatively large structures and features - usually visible to the unaided eye. (5)

- surface: study of general forms and superficial markings
- regional: focuses on the anatomical organization of specific areas of the body (ex head). Emphasizes the spatial relationships amount structures already familiar.
- systematic: study of organ systems (groups of organs that work together in a coordinated fashion). Clarifies functional relationships amount the component organs.
- developmental: describes the changes in form that occur between conception and physical maturity
- clinical: includes a number of sub specialities important in clinical practice

5

Organ systems

Groups of organs that function together in a coordinated manner (5) to maintain health and life of organism

6

Embryology

Study of first two months of development (most extensive structural changes in form) (6)

7

Microscopic anatomy

Deals with the structures that cannot be seen without magnification - thus the boundaries are established by the limits of the equipment used (6)

Made primarily of cytology and histology

8

Cytology

Study of the insides of cells (6)

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Cells

Simplest units of life. Composed of chemical substances in various combinations & chemical processes that support life. (6)

10

Histology

Examination of tissues(6)

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Tissues

Groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to preform one or more specific functions (7)

12

Organs

Made of two or more tissues working in combination to preform several functions. Most are easy to examine without a microscope (7)

13

Organism

Highest level of organization - made up of organ systems working together to maintain the health and life of the organism (10)

14

Autoregulation (intrinsic regulation)

Occurs within the cell, tissue, organ, or organ system to adjust its activities automatically in response to some environmental change (10)

Involves para rinse and autocrine agents

15

Reflex/Extrinsic regulation

Results from the activities of the nervous system or endocrine system (two organ systems that control or adjust the activities of many other systems simultaneously). (10)

Involves nervous and/or endocrine systems

16

Components of a homeostatic regulatory mechanism (3 parts)

1) receptor: a sensor that is sensitive to a particular stimulus or environmental change (ex thermometer)

2) control or integration center: receives and processes the informations supplied by the receptor & send out commands (ex thermostat)

-- note: set point/desired value must be established, oscillates around it

3) effector: a cell or organ that responds to the command from the control center and whose activity opposes or enhances the stimulus. (11)

Receptor -> (afferent pathway)-> control center -> (efferent pathway)-> effector

17

Negative feedback

Effector activated by the control center opposes or negates the original stimulus. Minimize change. (11)

Primary mechanism of homeostatic regulation and provides long-term control over the body's internal conditions and systems. Ignore minor fluctuations - implementing a normal range. (12)

18

Sign vs symptom

Much like qualitative vs quantitative. Signs can be measured objectively - seen, heard, felt, etc by anouther person. Symptoms such as nausea or pain cannot. (12)

19

Positive feedback

An initial stimulus produces a response and exaggerates or enhances the original change in conditions rather than opposing it. (12)

Often employed for short-term emergency situations

20

Disease

Also known as illness - organ systems malfunctioning (13)

21

Superficial anatomy

Involves locating structures on or near the body surface (15)

22

Anatomical landmarks

Palpable structures (15)

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Anatomical regions

Specific areas used for reference purposes (15)

24

Anatomical position

Arms at sides with palms facing forward, feet together (15)

25

Anterior vs posterior

Front vs back (15)

26

Supine vs prone

Face up vs face down

- think of when car ripping bowl of soup in hands. Hands must be face up (15)

27

Feed forward control

Anticipatory reaction, improves homeostasis.

- biorhythms (ex eating); do not drive but do provide timing cues

28

Two methods for subdividing the abdominal- pelvic area

1) abdominopelvic quadrants. Four areas decided by perpendicular lines intersecting at the umbilicus (navel)

2) abdominopelvic regions. Resembles a tic-tac-toe board (16)

29

Ventral vs dorsal

Belly side vs spine side (16)