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Chemistry

Science that deals with the structure of matter

1

Matter

Anything that takes up space and has mass

2

Mass

The amount of material in matter. Physical property that determines the weight of an object in Earth's gravitational field. (In non-physics fields often treated as being the same as its weight)

3

Atoms

Smallest stable units of matter. All things composed of. Unique characteristics result from types of atoms involved and how they combine/interact

4

Subatomic particles

Make up atoms
- protons have positive electrical charge = atomic number
- neutrons are electrically neutral
- electrons are much lighter than others, & have a negative charge

5

Element

Pure substance composed of atoms of only one kind (because atoms are the smallest particles of an element that still retain the characteristics of that element - each element has uniform composition and properties)

6

Isotopes

Atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.

Have essentially identical chemical properties but have a different mass. --- some are unstable & break down, emit subatomic particles or radiation (radioisotopes).

7

Mole

Number of atoms to get a weight in grams equal to its weight in amu. Same number no matter the element, but using this unit makes it easier to compare b/w species despite their weight differences

8

Metabolism

All the reactions underway in the cells and tissues in the body at any given moment

9

Work

Movement of an object or a change in the physical structure of matter

10

Energy

Capacity to do work; cannot be destroyed, only converted (conversion is not completely efficient, some energy released as hear each time)
- kinetic = energy of motion, easily transferred
- potential = stored energy, can be derived from position or structure (physical or chemical)

11

Heat

Increase in random molecular motion -- temperature is proportional to the average kinetic energy it's molecules have

12

Catabolism

All the decomposition reactions within the body's cells and tissues

13

Anabolism

All the synthesizing of new molecules within the body's cells and tissues

14

Nutrients

Essential elements and molecules normally obtained for the diet

15

Metabolites

Includes all molecules that can be synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions inside the body

16

Acid

Any solute that disassociates in solution and releases hydrogen ions -- lowers pH -- proton donors

17

Base

Solute that removes hydrogen ions from a solution -- proton acceptor -- can release OH- which reacts quickly to form water

18

Salt

Ionic compound containing ions other than H+ and OH-. Usually disassociates completely in water. Considered 'neutral' as it doesn't affect pH

19

Carbohydrates

Organic molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio near 1:2:1. Includes sugars and starches

20

Lipids

Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 2x hydrogen as carbon, very few oxygen. Includes fats, oils, and waxes. Most are insoluble in water

21

Fatty acids

Long carbon chains with hydrogen atoms attached. One end has carboxyl group -COOH attached to it (creating a head and a tail). Amphipathic --> longer the tail usually means less soluble

22

Eicosanoids

Lipids derived from arachidonic acid (fatty acid that must be absorbed in the diet because it cannot be synthesized by the body)

23

Prostaglandins

Short chain fatty acids where 5 of the carbons are joined together in a ring. Virtually all tissues synthesize and respond to them. Coordinate and direct local cellular activities -- very powerful, even in small quantities

24

Glyceride

Modified simple sugar (glycerol) + fatty acid(s)

Tri = energy source, insulation, & protection

25

Cofactor

Ion or molecule that must bind to an enzyme before substrates can also bind. Without, enzyme is intact but nonfunctional

26

Coenzyme

Non protein organic molecules that act as cofactors. Use items like vitamins.

27

Isozymes

In different tissues different enzymes are used to preform the same reaction

28

Glycoproteins

Large protein with small carbohydrate group attached. Can function as enzymes antibodies, hormones, or protein components.

29

High energy compound

Consists of high energy bond (covalent bond that releases energy that can be used directly) usually b/w a phosphate group and an organic molecule - often derived from nucleotides