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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (64):
1

Evolution

The process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today

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Biology

The scientific study of life

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Life (7)

Order
Energy processing
Growth and development
Evolutionary adaptation
Response to environment
Regulation
Reproduction

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Five unifying themes of life

Organization
Information
Energy and matter
Interactions
Evolution

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Levels of biological organization (12)

Biosphere > Ecosystem > Community > Population > Organism > Organ system > Organ > Tissue > Cell > Organelle > Molecule > Atom

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The Biosphere

consists of all life on Earth and all the places where life exists

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Ecosystem

consists of all the living things in a particular area, along with all the nonliving components of the environment with which life interacts, such as soil, water, atmospheric gases, and light

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Community

The array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem

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Population

consists of all the individuals of a species living within the bounds of a specified area

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Organism

Individual living thing

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Organ system

A team of organs that cooperate in a larger function

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Organ

A body part that carries out a particular function in the body

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Tissue

A group of cells that work together, performing a
specialized function

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Cell

Life’s fundamental unit of structure and function. The smallest unit of organization that can perform all activities required for life

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Organelle

A functional component present in cells

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Molecule

A chemical structure consisting of two or more atoms

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Atom

The smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element

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Reductionism

reduces complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study

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Emergent properties

New properties that emerge due to the arrangement and interactions of simpler parts

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Systems biology

The exploration of a biological system by analyzing the interactions among its parts

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Structure and Function

At each level of the biological hierarchy, structure is correlated to function

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Two types of cells

Eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells

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Eukaryotic cell

contains membrane-enclosed organelles (such as the nucleus)

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Prokaryotic cell

lacks a nucleus or other membrane-enclosed organelles and are generally smaller than eukaryotic cells

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Chromosome

is made out of DNA and contains genetic information

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Gene

A section of the DNA of a chromosome. It is the unit of inheritance

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DNA molecule

is made up of two long strands, arranged in a double helix. Each strand is made up of four nucleotides (A, T, C, and G)

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Gene expression

The process, by which a gene directs the manufacture of a cellular product (translation and transcription)

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Genome

The entire “library” of genetic instructions that an organism inherits

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DNA replication

The process of copying a DNA molecule

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Transcription

The process of copying DNA into mRNA

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Translation

The process of creating a protein from mRNA

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Genomics

The study of whole sets of genes

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Proteome

The entire set of proteins expressed by a given cell or group of cells

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Proteomics

the study of sets of proteins and their properties

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Bioinformatics

The use of computational tools to store, organize, and analyze the huge volume of data that results from high-throughput methods

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Producers

convert energy from sunlight to chemical energy

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Consumers

feed on producers and other consumers

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Energy flow and chemical cycling

energy flows one way "through" an ecosystem (usually entering as light and exiting as heat). In contrast, chemicals are recycled "within" an ecosystem

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Feedback regulation

The output, or product, of a process regulates that very process

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Negative feedback

The end product "slows down" its own production (Insulin production). The most common type of feedback.

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Positive feedback

The end product "speeds up" its own production (Blood clotting)

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Number of species

1.8 million identified and named to date. Estimates range from about 10 million to over 100 million

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Taxonomy

The branch of biology that names and classifies species. The classification of organisms in an ordered system that indicates natural relationships

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Domains (3)

The highest level of taxanomic classification. Domain Archaea and Bacteria(most diverse and numerous) are prokaryotes. Domain Eukarya are eukaryotes

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Kingdoms of domain Eukarya

Plantae, Animalia and Fungi are multicellular. Protists (most diverse and numerous eukaryotes) are unicellular.

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Distinguish between plants, animals and fungi

These three kingdoms are distinguished partly by their modes of nutrition. Plants produce their own food by photosynthesis, fungi absorb dissolved nutrients from their surroundings, and animals obtain food by eating other organisms (ingestion).

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Unity in the Diversity of Life

As diverse as life is, it also displays remarkable unity. E.g. the similar skeletons of different vertebrate animals and the universal genetic language of DNA

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Science

A way of knowing—an approach to understanding
the natural world

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Inquiry

A search for information and explanations of natural phenomena

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Scientific method (process)

Observation
Hypothesis
Prediction
Experimentation
Conclusion

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Data

Recorded observations

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Qualitative vs. quantitative data

Qualitative data are in the form of recorded descriptions. Quantitative data record numerical measurements.

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Inductive reasoning

To derive generalizations from a large number of specific observations

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Deductive reasoning

From general premises, we extrapolate to the specific results we should expect if the premises are true

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Hypothesis

A tentative answer to a wellframed question—an explanation on trial.

A proposed explanation for a phenomenon

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Experiment

A scientific test (of an hypothesis), carried out under controlled conditions

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Variables

Factors that vary in an experiment

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Controlled experiment

An experiment that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group. Ideally,
the experimental and control groups are designed to
differ only in the one factor the experiment is testing

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Independent variable

The factor manipulated by experimenters

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Dependent variable

A factor that is measured in the experiment and dependent on the independent variable

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Control group

A group used in an experiment to cancel out the effects of different variables not currently tested. If a difference in still observed between the groups, it must be due to the one variable that the control group differs.

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Theory

An explanation that is very broad in scope, generates new hypotheses and is supported by a large body of evidence

64

Natural selection

The evolutionary mechanism for descent with
modification.

Obervations:
1) Individuals in a population vary in their traits, many of which seem to be heritable. 2) A population can produce far more offspring than can survive on the limited resources; therefore, competition is inevitable. 3) Species are generally adapted to their environments