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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (26):
1

Four emergent properties of water

Cohesion, temperature moderation, expansion upon freezing and the solvent of life

2

Cohesion

The attraction between water molecules due to hydrogen bonding

3

Adhesion

The clinging of one substance to another

4

Surface tension

A measure of how difficult it is to break the surface of a liquid

5

Kinetic energy

The energy of motion

6

Thermal energy

The energy in a system due to its temperature. The kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules

7

Temperature

A measure of energy that represents the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a body of matter

8

Heat

Thermal energy in transfer from one body of matter to another

9

Calorie (cal)

The amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C.

1 cal = 4.184 J (joules)

10

Specific heat

The amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of a substance to change its temperature by 1°C

11

Heat of vaporization

The quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state

12

Evaporative cooling

As a liquid evaporates, the surface of the liquid that remains behind cools down (its temperature decreases)

13

Solution

A liquid that is a completely homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

14

Solvent

The dissolving agent of a solution

15

Solute

The substance that is dissolved in a solution

16

Aqueous solution

A solution in which the solute is dissolved in water

17

Hydration shell

The sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion

18

Hydrophilic

Any substance that has an affinity for water

19

Hydrophobic

A substance that is repelled by water

20

Molecular mass

The sum of the masses of all the atoms in a molecule

21

Mole (mol)

An exact number of objects: 6.02 * 10^23 (Avogadro's number). There are exactly so many daltons in one gram.

22

Molarity

The number of moles of solute per liter of solution

23

Acid

a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution (hydrochloric acid)

24

Base

A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution (sodium hydroxide)

25

Acid rain

Rain that is acidic (pH below 5.2)

26

Ocean acidification

When CO2 dissolves in seawater, it reacts with water to
form carbonic acid, which lowers ocean pH