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Flashcards in chapter 1 Deck (29):
1

What does SOFAR stand for

SOund Frequency and Rannging

2

Hypothesis

Explanation of measurable observations, an idea about a cause or relationship between cause and effect

3

Theory

a well substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws, logical inferences, and tested hypotheses

4

A scientist develops tests or experiments based on a hypothesis to

Find data and proof that the hypothesis is incorrect.

5

The scientific method

Is “evolutionary” and based on the best available answer in a given time.

6

Age of the universe

~13.8 billion years old

7

Age of the solar system

~5 billion years old

8

Age of the Earth

~4.6 billion years old

9

Red shifts

Wavelength increases up towards the red and beyond (frequency decreases)

10

Blue shifts

decrease in wavelength (increase in frequency) caused by relative motion, even outside the visible spectrum

11

Big bang theory- where do the elements come from

14 bya

12

formation of the earth (Density stratification)

heavier stuff sinks and lighter matter forms crust

13

sources and timing of the oceans (Where is the water from)

outgassing (from origin of earths atmosphere) released water vapor

14

Eratosthenes

determined Earth's circumference fairly accurately

15

Magellan

Spaniard. circumnavigated the globe. killed on a pacific island 1521

16

James Cook

undertook 3 scientific voyages (Endeavour, resolution, adventure) mapped many islands in pacific, systematically measured ocean characteristics, marine chronograph (longitude)

17

Phoenicians

first from western hemisphere to develop navigation arts.
explored mediterranean sea, red sea, and indian ocean.
first circumnavigation of Africa.
Reached the British Isles
2000 BC

18

Greeks

Pytheas- Sailed north using a method to determine latitude in 325 BC using north star
Eratosthenes- determined circumference

19

Vikings

explored north atlantic ocean
settled iceland and greenland
greenland settlements abandoned due to climatic cooling

20

Latitude

Pytheas determined using north star

21

Longitude

james cook. marine chronograph

22

the heaviest naturally occurring element is

Uranium

23

formation of earth- Accretion

small particles clump into larger masses

24

elements on earth- most abundant to least

nitrogen oxygen argon carbon dioxide

25

earliest life on earth

3.5 billion years old in the oceans

26

The red light shift we see in other galaxies indicating that they are moving away from ours is a result of the

Doppler effect

27

Elements with atomic weights up to carbon are formed in the centers of ______ by a process called ______

Main sequence stars/ fusion

28

The largest reservoir of freshwater on our planet is (are)

glaciers

29

An explanation that is supported by many observations has no major flaws, has been tested extensively and is accepted by the scientific community is a

Theory