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Flashcards in chapter 14 Deck (41):
1

avoiding sinking

may increase buoyancy
use of gas containers: rigid gas containers, swim bladders
ability to float: some zooplankton produce oils
nekton can swim

2

Zooplankton: copepods

most abundant and widespread

3

Zooplankton: Krill

Resemble mini shrimp
abundant near antarctica

4

macroscopic zooplankton

cnidarians:
hydrozoan (portuguese man of war) gas filled float. related to coral polyps
Scyphozoan (Jellyfish) soft low density bodies. often have stinging cells

5

nekton

swimming organisms
swim by trapping water and expelling it(squid, octopi)
swim by curving body front to back (most fish/mammals)
Swim by manipulating fins (Turtles penguins)

6

fins: paired vertical fins for?

stablilizers

7

Paired pelvic fins and pectoral fins for?

steering and balance

8

Tail fin (Caudal) for?

thrust

9

rounded caudal fins

flexible
maneuver at slow speeds
sharp turns

10

Truncate fins and forked fins

(Truncate squarish at end) useful for maneuvering and thrust

11

lunate fins

kind of like forked.
rigid, little maneuverability
efficient propulsion for fast swimmers

12

heterocercal fins

asymmetrical
lift for buoyancy
shark

13

Lungers

wait for prey and pounce
grouper
mainly white muscle

14

cruisers

actively seek prey
tuna
mostly red muscle

15

white muscle

fast muscle
less efficient by much more tension (rubber band) for faster movement

16

red muscle

good for long sustained swimming

17

poikilothermic

cold blooded
bodies same temp as enviro
not fast swimmers

18

homeothermic

warm blooded
found in warmer and cooler enviros and can move efficiently and quickly in cold enviros
helps capture prey

19

deep water nekton adaptations

bioluminescence: photophores
large sensitive eyes
large sharp teeth
expandable bodies
hinged jaws
counterillumination

20

deep water nekton

mainly fish that consume detritus or each other
lack of abundant food

21

avoiding predation

schooling
symbiosis
commensalism
mutualism
parasitism
speed
poisons
mimicry
transparency
camo
countershading

22

symbiosis

2 or more organisms mutually benefit from association

23

commensalism

less dominant organism benefits without harming host

24

mutualism

both organisms benefit
ex) clownfish anemone

25

parasitism

parasite benefits at expense of its host

26

marine mammals

warm blooded
breathe air
hair/fur
bear live young
mammary glands

27

marine mammal orders

carnivora
sirenia
cetacea

28

carnivora

prominent canine teeth
sea otters, polar bears, pinnipeds (walruses, seals, sea lions, fur seals)

29

seal vs sea lions vs fur seals

seals lack prominent ear flaps
seals have smaller front flippers
seals have fore flipper claws
different hip structures
different locomotion strategies

30

sirenia

herbivores
manatees- coastal areas of tropical atlantic ocean
dugongs- coastal areas of indian and western pacific oceans

31

cetacea

whales dolphins porpoises
elongated skull
blowholes on top of skull
few hairs
fluke- horizontal tail fin for vertical propulsion

32

cetacea: adaptations to increase swimming speed:

streamlined bodies
specialized skin structure (80% water, Stiff inner layer, narrow canals with spongy material

33

cetacea adaptations for deep diving

use oxygen efficiently: can absorb 90% oxygen inhaled, can store large quantities of O2 and can reduce O2 required for noncritical organs
muscles insensitive to buildup of CO2
collapsible lungs

34

order cetacea: suborder odontoceti

toothed
dolphins porpoises killer whale sperm whale
echolocation to determine distance and direction to objects

35

Dolphins vs. Porpoises
body shape

porpoises: smaller more stout
dolphins: larger more streamlined

36

Dolphins vs. Porpoises
nose

porpoises: blunt snout
dolphins: longer rostrum

37

Dolphins vs. Porpoises
fin

porpoises: triangular smaller dorsal fin
dolphins: falcate dorsal fin (hooked)

38

Dolphins vs. Porpoises
teeth

porpoises: blunt or flat teeth
Dolphins: pointy teeth like killer whales (orca)

39

echolocation

mammals emit clicks of different pitches
low frequency- great distance
high frequency- closer range

40

order cetacea: suborder mysticeti

baleen whales
blue whale gray whale right whale
fibrous plates of baleen sieve prey items
vocalized sounds for various purposes

41

gray whale migration

feeding grounds in arctic (summer)
breeding and birthing grounds in tropical eastern pacific (winter)