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Flashcards in chapter 2 Deck (29):
1

old crust is preserved at what type of boundary?

f

2

____ was the oldest known location technique on the globe that required only the stars while ____ needed an accurate timepiece to plot accurately

latitude/longitude

3

the himalaya are an example of the tectonic force of a

continent-continent convergent collision

4

plate tectonic theory

Alfred Wegner
late 1960s adopted
the continents were all once connected and have drifted apart

5

continental drift theory evidence

fossils, cross atlantic mountain belts, similar rock units, glaciations

6

why are earthquakes found mainly at the edges of plates

breakage and deformation of the lithosphere is focused at plate edges

7

p-wave

primary wave
highest velocity
particle compression
can pass through liquid and solid
travel furthest from epicenter

8

s-wave

shear wave
second fastest
vertical particle motion
can pass through solid but not liquid

9

surface waves

slowest but most destructive
reyleigh waves and love waves

10

reyleigh waves

up and down motion

11

love waves

lateral motion

12

divergent plate boundaries

new crust created at mid ocean ridges
volcanoes

13

convergent plate boundaries

crust subducted and remelted
volcanoes and large earthquakes

14

transform plate boundaries

plates sliding past each other
earthquakes
do not create or destroy crust
can be on continent or in ocean
connect spreading centers (divergent boundaries)
ex) san andreas fault, CA

15

passive margin

edges of the divergent basin

16

oceanic rise

fast spreading
gentle slopes
east pacific

17

oceanic ridge

slow spreading
steep slopes
mid atlantic

18

ultraslow

deep rift valley
widely scattered volcanoes
arctic and southwest india

19

ocean-continent convergent plate boundaries

ex) andes mountains, w South America

20

Ocean-ocean convergent plate boundaries

ex) Japanese volcanic islands

21

Continent-continent convergent plate boundaries

ex) Himalayas, india asia collision

22

The Strongest earthquakes occur

at convergent boundaries

23

Wilson cycles

tectonic cycles over geologic time scales of ocean basin creation growth closure and destruction

24

Wilson cycles: embryonic

uplift
complex system of linear rift valleys on continent
east african rift valleys

25

Wilson cycles: Juvenile

Divergence
narrow seas with matching coasts
red sea

26

Wilson cycles: Mature

divergence
ocean basin with continental margins
atlantic and arctic oceans

27

Wilson cycles: Declining

Convergence (Subduction)
island arcs and trenches around basin edge
pacific ocean

28

Wilson cycles: Terminal

convergence (collision) and uplift
narrow irregular seas with young mountains
mediterranean sea

29

Wilson cycles: Suturing

convergence and uplift
young to mature mountain belts
himalaya mountains