Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

Child Psych > Chapter 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (72):
0

Human development:

How people grow and change across their life span

NOT LIMITED TO:
Bio cognitive psychological and social functioning

1

Culture

Complete set of a groups:
Customs
Beliefs
Art
Technology

2

Globalization:

Process of increasing the connections between different parts of the world

3

What has allowed globalization to increase?

Trade
Travel
Migration
Communication

**global village: Marshall McLuhan

4

Culture:

Handed down through language

It is the common way of life

** previously studied only white middle class thinking it was all the same

5

What was earths population for most of history?

10,000

But in the past 400 hit 50 mil

Past century 6-7 billion

2050- 9 billion

6

What is total fertility rate?

Births per woman

7

Total fertility rate now?

2.8

Stable: 2.1

2050 should be 2.1

8

% of population that is wealthy

Less than 20%

9

Developed countries

18% of pop

Affluent, economically developed

Highest median income and education levels

10

Developing countries

Low income level

But have rapid Econ growth

82% of population

11

Future Trends of US population

Now 310 mil
2050 439 mil

With more immigration increase in pop unlike other developed nations like Japan with low fertility and no immigration

12

Income of the world:

40% > less than two dollars a day is what they live on
8%> have a family income of less than 6000 a year

Africa: 50% at bottom 20%
Developed: 9/10 top 20% of wealth

13

Education in nations

Developed: 50% go to tertiary school

Developing: 20% x primary
50% in secondary
* reserved for wealthy

14

Individualistic

Culture values independence and self expression

15

Collectivist

Culture values obedience and group harmony

16

Traditional cultures

Rural culture adhering to cultural traditions more than in urban areas

17

Caste system

Used in India

Class system or social hierarchy

Belief of reincarnation that Beth determines caste position and status

Why:
Half of Indias children are malnourished
Less than half complete high school
Half of women can read
Two thirds live in rural villages
Three fourths of men can read

18

Majority culture

Culture group establishing norms

Holds political, intellectual, and economic, media power

Opposite of minority

19

Contexts

Settings and circumstances that create differences in human development

Ex ses gender ethnicity family school media community culture

20

Socioeconomic status

Social class

Based on

Edn level Income Occupation

Children use parents

Elite vs poor
*battle for resources
Ex us higher imr in lower areas that lack prenatal care

21

Gender

Expectations

Make vs female

More blurred today

22

Ethnicity:

Culture origin
Tradition
Religion
Language

NOT RACE... Physical distinguishing trait

23

Why rise in pop?

Medical advances

24

Natural selection

Survival of best suited to environment

25

Hominid

Point where we break of from monkeys

Bipedal locomotion- two legged walking

26

Homo

Brain size double

Branch of hominid

Babies less mature- mother attachment

27

Hunter- gatherer

Females at home

Men hunt and get food

Evolution of tools and fire

Cooked food growth in brain size

28

Homo sapiens

20,000 years ago

Thinner and lighter bones

Smaller teeth and jaw

Brain is 30% larger than homo

US TODAY

29

Upper Paleolithic

40- 10,000 years ago

Art instruments paintings
Beads on clothes
Figures
Burials
Trade
Tool development
Boats
End of ice age

30

Neolithic

10-5,000 years ago

Cultivate plants
Climate change
Domesticate animals
Tools- mortar and pistol
Spindle and loom
Better harvests

31

Civilization

5,000 years ago

Cities
Writing
Work specialization
Wealth
Status
Political systems

** Egypt know due to records of law sewer system gvmt workers gods slaves monuments to leaders

32

State

Centralized political system

Essential to Civilization

33

Why did civilization develop?

Agriculture- irrigation

Not all farm focused

Can go to the city

To be a merchant musician etc

Need the state to oversee the infrastructure

34

Evolutionary psychology

Examines patterns of human function or behavior that result in adaptions to evolutionary conditions

Brain size

Ability to alter environment above natural selection

Skills over genetics

35

Psychodynamic theories

Underlying psycho forces of behavior

Challenges/ stages

Freud and Erickson

36

Psychosexual theory

Freud

All in childhood

Psychoanalysis- repressed memories ice berg consciousness

Sex= driving force

Stages:
Oral: 0-1 mouth and sucking

Anal:1.5-3 sex sensations in the butt and feces elimination

Phallic: 3-6 most important genitals Oedipus complex

Latency: 6-puberty repress sex focus on social and intellectual skills

Genital: Adolescence superego outside family

Fixations
Critics:
More to life than sex
Did not study children
Studied upper class women

37

Id
Superego
Ego

Id:sex drive impulses pleasure principal

Superego: conscience guilt for disobeying

Ego: mediator reality principal
Find satisfaction without guilt

38

Psychosocial theory:

Erickson

Integrated social and cultural environment

Stages:
Infant: trust vs mistrust

Toddler: autonomy vs shame and doubt (self distinction vs punishment)

Early childhood: initiative vs guilt (plan for purpose vs treated badly)

Middle childhood: industry vs inferiority ( learn skills encouragement vs unsuccessful feels bad)

Adolescence: Id vs role confusion ( who are you or confused)

early adulthood: intimacy vs isolation (intimate relation vs vulnerable and isolated)

Mid adulthood: generativity vs stagnation (contributed to next gen or focus on own life)

Late adulthood: (ego) integrity vs despair ( look back good or bad?)

Series- must pass one or will struggle with the next

More accepted but adolescence and midd adulthood need more focus

39

Behaviorism:

Scientific approach to development

All can be explained via learning mechanisms

Watson: observe and measure behavior thought he could control a child could not

40

Pavlov:

Laws of behavior:
Conditioning- process where a stimulus is associated with a response

Classical conditioning- salivating dogs

41

Skinner:

Skinner box

Operant conditioning- reinforcement modifies voluntary behavior

Reward and punishment

42

Social learning theory:

Focus on learning by observing social models w/o direct enforcement

Bandura

Bobo the monkey and the aggressive film

* unsure how to behave imitate someone they look up to that nurtured them

43

Constructivist:

Construct reality in our minds
Piaget- cog construct approach
Vygotsky: soc construct theory

44

Cognitive constructivist theory:

Piaget

0-2 sensorimotor- coordinate w/ motor senses

3-6 preoperational- symbolic representation language use with limited mental operations

7-11 concrete operational- think hypothetically mental operations

12 and up formal operational- logic and abstract thinking metacognition

Goal: children try to understand the environment not like behaviorist where environment acts in the child

*Mental structures
*schemes
*assim vs accom
*maturation

45

Mental structures

Cognitive systems organized thinking into coherent patterns so thinking is equal to cognitive function

Coherently organizing cognitive abilities to function

46

Maturation:

driving force of development

Biologically based

Program log development that unfolds with world interactionsp

47

Schemes:

Structures of cognition that allow processing organizing and interpreting

Assimilation: new info to update existing idea
-dog-sees cat says dog or another type of dog

Accommodation: change scheme to adapt to new info
Sees cat says dog mom says no cat and fixes it

48

Social constructivist theory:

Vygotsky

Child develop is driven via child's interaction with experienced people in social context

Sociocultural theory
Learn via interactions

Zone of proximal development- difference between a task a child can do alone vs if guided
Learning is best if within the zone

Scaffolding: degree of assistance provided to the learner in the zopd
Decrease as skills develop
Learning a new skill or gaining knowledge

49

Ecological theory:

Brofenbrenner

Human development is shaped via the five systems in social environments they are INFLUENCES not stages

Individual: health sex age etc

1) microsysem: immediate
Family, parents, siblings, health services, school, church groups

2) mesosystem: connections of Microsystems-- abused child difficulty in teacher relationships parents work affect relation with child

3) exosystem: societal institutions
School religion media-- testing academic stress

4) macrosystem: attitudes and ideologies of the culture
Individual freedom-capitalist economy democracy

5) chromosystem: change in development over time in individual and history-- environment events sociocultural conditions over lifespan
Ex job loss at 45 vs 15

Continuous development

50

Scientific method:

1) research question

2) hypothesis- educated guess for solution to investigation

3) research method- approach to investigating hypothesis ex interview

design experiment- plan of when and how to collect data ex time number of times


4) data

5) conclusion- new ? Or new hypothesis

51

Sample

Subset of population that data is collected from

Needs to represent the population

52

Population

In research, the entire category represented by a sample

Representative sample- Reflects ideas

Generalizable- can draw a general conclusion

Not collected in bias area

53

Procedure

How the study is conducted
And data is collected

54

Peer review

Review of research by other scientists to evaluate that the research is worth and credible to publish

-editor reflects on these when deciding if to publish it or not

55

Theory

Framework of scientific idea to spark more research

Modify the theory

56

Ethics

Institutional review board:
1) protect from harm
2) informed consent
3) confidentiality
4) deception and debrief- tell true purpose

57

Questionnaire

Most commonly used

Closed ended
Lacks depth
Specific choices

58

Quantitative:

Numerical results

59

Qualitative:

Nonnumerical answers

Descriptions
Video
Needs to be coded and organized to use

60

Observations:

Actual behavior

But if know watch- may throw it off

61

Ethnographic research:

Researchers spend lots of time with subjects

Live with them

Keep track of observations

Give up their life to understand their life

Very time consuming

62

Case study:

Individual

Not generalizable

63

Biological measures:

Brain function
Hormones
Genetics

64

Experimental research:

Experimental group
Placebo
Control group
Independent variable- different for experimental ex film content
Dependent- outcome ex aggression

Higher participant control
Like real life behavior?

65

Intervention:

Programs aiming to change attitudes or behaviors of participants

66

Natural experiment:

Natural situation giving interesting results

Ex adoption-- genes and environment

67

Reliability:

Consistency of measurements
Ex period 1st then ask again six months later

68

Validity:

Truthfulness of a method

Measures what it claims to measure

More difficult to prove

69

Cross sectional study:

Research data collected on 1 occasion, then studies POTENTIAL relationships

Correlations more difficult
Quick and inexpensive

70

Correlation:

Statistic relation of how one factor predicts another

CORRELATION DOES NOT MEAN CAUSATION

+ both increase or both decrease
- one increase one decrease and vice versa

71

Longitudinal research:

Following same people over time (2+)
Week life months
Show how people change

Cohort effect: people of various ages differ because they grew up in a different time period

Attrition: loss of participants