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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (38):


Hormone released by the pituitary gland it causes labor to begin

When hits a certain threshold

Triggers uterine contractions


Birth process

3 stages w

1) labor: 12 hours 1St Bebe, 6 after
Cervix dilates
Push fetus to vagina
Cervix displayed to 10 cm
Pain: contractions increase in frequency and intense to dialate cervix

2)delivery: 1/2 to 1 hour
Moms effort to push fetus through cervix and out of uterus
Less frequent contraction (60-90sec)
Crowning:babies head appears at putter opening of vag

3) delivery of placenta and uterus
Contract until placenta and Umb cord are out
Few min to half hour
Whole placenta must be out or continue to bleed
Breast feed can expel it quicker or oxytocin injection



Incision to make vag bigger

Shorten by 15 to 30 min

Critics say unnecessary
1970 90%
2000 20%


Birth complications

1) failure to progress and breech
-longer than normal so they walk nap or get an enema meds oxytocin to stim the contractions

Breech presentation: feet/butt in breech position
Dangerous because Umb cord can restrict
Midwifes massage while using medicine by 37th week

2) c-section, cesarean delivery
Can't breech progress or any problems this is the answer
Cut baby from uterus
2000 year practice but babes would die or mothers
Until sterile and antibiotics
Help with stds
Cost more and dr get payed more
But not higher rates
Vbac vag birth after csection

Low birth prob rates in north Europe India abs Africa


Culture and birth

Spiritually unclean
Stay away from leoe

New Guinea- outskirts of village where excretion and menstruation occur

Vietnam- x go out for 30 days talk to husband via door

Cleanse ceremonies

Why? To help control pain and peril of birth


Placenta and culture

Burial or burn then bury
Like twin of fetus or "spirit"

Has nutrients and hormones
Has oxytocin to prevent hemroids

China- milk production or in meds


Birth practices

Older women
Anyone with on call availability

Spirit calling

Highly respected
Feared in India lowest status unclean and pollut

Us docs and midwifes assist
Developing- husbands can't be there for birth
And traditional men need to be there Mexican and Philippines


Ease preg

Midwife massage

Ukraine whiskey

Walk or lay during contractions

Birth talk- encourage or scold if too loud scream or complaining

Longer labor more danger

Key and comb given as luck

Ropes bottles/corks flowers animals

To do:
Rocking chair
Birth ball
Steady breathing

Epidural- inject amnesia in spinal fluid to decrease pain but keep consciousness

After birth baby lay on abdomen
Until Umb cord and placenta are expelled via massage meds rituals try to sneeze or vomit or synth oxytocin

Cut chord: tie cut bamboo she'll broken glass sickles razor not clean baby have disease
India ash from burnt cow poop causes tetanus


Variations in birth

Midwifes - 15th century

18th-med school dr. With little experience

Obstetrics birth field and prenatal care

18 and 19th forceps
50% of births used it in us in 19
Then4 via 20rh

50% use Midwifes
1930- 15%

1940s gloves and hand washing introduced

Twilight sleeping
Inject with narcotics
Felt pain can't remember

Natural birth proposed in 1930 popular by 1960

90% U.S. births in hospitals
Efm elect fetal monitor fetus heart beat
Increase (can) csection

More use of midwives
Dads now included

80% of work pop in ing countries birth is pain and peril

Neonatal mortality 2x high for Africans



Two soft spots on back and top of head
Shift during birth to assist passage through birth canal



Newb baby

Up to 4 weeks


Neonatal jaundice

Yellow skin of baby in first days due to immature liver

If like after few days problem
Fix via phototherapy (expose to blue light)
Cause brain damage



Can't breath when hit oxygen

Minutes can cause perm damage


Apagar scale

0-3- life threatening
4-6- req assist to breath
7-10- good to excellence condition

Appearance blue- pink
Pulse absent to fast
Grimace ( reflex) none to cough sneeze cry
Activity limp and flaccid to strong active
Respiration no breath more than 1 min to good breath with cry

98% us babes fall in 7-10

Two times
Minute after birth
Then 5

Rates determine risk of death in first month


Brazelton scale

27 items
Phys state
Stun response
Cent nervous system stability

Day after birth
Then two months
Decrease develop probe
Increase parent confidence


Low birth weight
Small for date

<2500g 5.5lbs

Preterm- babes born at 37 weeks or less

Small for date: term for neonates who weigh less than 90% of other babes born at same age

World rate: 14%

As and af highest rates euro lowest


About low birth and effect on neonate

Very low birth weight less than 3.3 at birth
Extreme low birth less than 2.2 lbs

Born preteen
Us 50% survive if born pre 25 weeks

Malnutrition illness disease teratogens

Physical systems not good immature infection vulnerable
Lack Fat to insulate



Helps them breath and keeps air sacs from collapsing

Preterm haven't developed this

Fatal consequences

Breath tube help


Treatment of low birth weight

Kangaroo care moms and dad place preterm infant on skin on chest 2-3 hours a day during early weeks of life

Highly beneficial breath body temp heart rate sleep cycles

More likely to survive

Infant massage
Isolette- sterile chamber with oxy and control temp
Weight gain

Though low weight later problems
Physical cognitive allergies
Language delays poor school performance


Sleep of neonates

Avg 16-17
Reality 10-21

Periods of sleep sleep deprived parents

4months sleep longer at once, 14 per day

Rem sleep
Adults 20%
50% on neonates
3 months 40%

Sleep wake state in babes
Trad babes always with moms
Us sleep 8 hours by 8 months


Baby reflexes


Auto response to stimulation

Moro- arch backs fling out arms bring in arms in embrace - response to fall back or loud noise
Fade after a few months measure neuro development

Cough sneeze blink shiver avoid enviro factors


Babkin response

Stroke palms close it eyes open eyes tilt head forward


Babinski reflex

Stroke foot twist it inward as fans out toes


Neonatal senses

Touch 1st feel pain or will sleep recover quickly and be normal after
Cry from pain releases pain killer hormone

Taste/smell: prewomb jazz prefer
Amniotic fluid prefer merms- soothing
Prefer sweet taste (add sugar to amn fluid eat faster)
2 days no mom breast pref, but at 4 prefer mom

Hearing- rec distinctive sounds
Nipple experiment-suck harder at preference prefer mom and native over foreign language
Can tell when sound changes
Syllable changes
Music sensitivity
Prefer prebirth mom songs

Limit- amniotic fluid drain from ears improve by two years
Sound localization- can't tell where sound comes from worsens in first two months improve by one

Sight- lens retina cells cones and optic nerve not strong yet
20/200 or 20/600
Best at 8-14 inch
Binocular vision- happens at 3-4
Visual preferences


Mammary glands

Produce milk for babies
Breast expansion


Let down reflex

Reflex that cause milk to be released in the tip of the nipple to her baby crying seeing the baby open its mouth or thinking about it


Dealing with breast struggles

Wet nurse
Substitute goat formula rice


Breast feed on us

Latinas 80
White 79
Black 65


Benefits of Brest feeding

Disease protection- antibodies that strengthen immune system reduce risks

Cognitive development- higher cog function

Reduced obesity- 6 months

Better child and adult health

Go back to weight
Oxytocin release
Birth control opress ovulation



Thick yellow Milky liquid produced by mammal moms following birth
Protein rich
Help immune system


Meta analysis experiment

Combine stats to get study results overAll outcome

Confounded- probs in stats where can't detangke variables in people's lives

Intervention programs help and promote breast feeding age no differences except iq unless low term



Fussing- warm up mild distress develop into full blown if no response
Soft whimper long breath intakes

Anger cry- large volume via vocal chords

Pain cry- sudden no fussing large breaths lets loose

By month parents tell anger vs pain

Cry curve


Response to cry

Peak patterns
Resist to south
Pain like face
Long last
Evening cry

Increase in culture where left alone
4/5 have 15 min crying episodes in us for bo reason

Study- freq same duration less if held more



Wrap babies in tight clothes



1 in 10 west babies

Cry for three hours
Three days at a time
Three weeks or more

In second or third week of life

Decline after six weeks disappears at three months

Unknown cause
No effects



Instant and enduring bond to first objective after birth in birds



First few min and hours after birth crucial to mother infant relationships


Postpartum depression

In parents with we baby

Genetic predisposition

Baby not on track- but later will be more withdrawn

Nature vs nurture idea

Feelings of sadness and anxiety so intense impact daily life

Us and U.K. 4% of dads get it

10% rate worldwide