Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (50):
What is the fastest growing ethnic group in the U.S?
What are cultural norms?
the accepted and expected ways of behaving and interacting with other people
Culture holds group communication pattern's, what does that mean?
How a group solves problems, how a group perceives and possesses on its shared values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviours
What are the six dimensions that Kluckhon, Strodbeck created
environment, time, people, activity, responsibility and space
Is culture dynamic or static?
Dynamic, it changes with people, geographical and historical events, and technological advances
What influence do our values have on us?
Values make us who we are and that shape all other structures in our attitudinal system
Truths we hold to be self-evident because they are based on our values
orientation or position, attitude gives some meaning and direction to our beliefs
Visible portion of our system of beliefs
Defined by, the direct result of all these structures and is found at the uppermost level of our attitudinal system
HI MR. K. Cram, Bestv
5. Concepts of the universe
8. Material objects
11. Spatial Relationships
What are the three things that people have in common
1. genetic inheritance
2. Basic human nature
- food, water, sleep, shelter, clothing, sex
3. Facial expressions
What are the 6 characteristics of culture
2. Transmitted from generation to generation
• stories, traditions, holidays, parents, education, proverbs, ehhh, sayings
3. Based on Symbols
• maple leaf
• Religious Icons
6. Ethnocentric- you think your culture is the best
a cognitive process in which we attach meaning to objects, symbols, people and behaviour in order to make sense of them
Schema or Schemata
help us categorize what we know, for example, ways of greetings, bowing shaking hands etc
Why does "stereotype" set up limitations for understanding?
People can grow inflexible with the ways in which we categorize the behaviour of someone from another culture
What are the five dimensions that describe how the national culture is organized?
2. Uncertainty avoidance
3. Long-term/Short-Term orientation
4. Power distance
What is the most important symbol of culture?
What is the definition of culture?
- Acquired by a group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving
- Culture refers to a particular group of people at a particular place at a particular time
What does ethnocentrism mean?
Thinking your culture is the best
How is culture transmitted from generation to generation?
Through media, parents, teachers, etc
How is culture dynamic?
Aging population, technology, communication
What does it mean that culture is integrated?
You dont even think about it, you dont question why you show up to a doctors appointment on time, makes complete sense to people that are part of it
What is cultural relativity
A cultural philosophy we want to use: The idea that there is no good or bad culture just different ones
Problem with this statement, NAZI GERMANY, INDIA
Moral relativism may be any of several philosophical positions concerned with the differences in moral judgments across different people and cultures. Descriptive moral relativism holds only that some people do in fact disagree about what is moral; meta-ethical moral relativism holds that in such disagreements, nobody is objectively right or wrong; and normative moral relativism holds that because nobody is right or wrong, we ought to tolerate the behavior of others even when we disagree about the morality of it.
According to Moral Relativism
There is no goodness or badness in the abstract; there is only goodness or badness within a specified context
Ethical principles are?
Culturally bound, context dependent, and only applicable to their respective cultures
Worldview is defined by?
a culture's orientation toward god, humanity, nature, questions of existence, cosmos, life, death, sickness, and other issues that influence how its members see the world
If god wants
What is a global village
A single community that is connected by telecommunications
What are the layers in the hidden dimension of Culture
What are the pieces of an the Onion?
What is the outer layer of the onion or culture?
Explicit and specific products (observable) like clothing, language, food, clothing, gestures, buildings, music,
What is the middle layer of culture
Norms, values of a particular group, deeper layer of culture
Norms are accepted ways of enacting a culture
Values are standards by which we live our lives
Ex Lining up for the bus, apologizing
What is the third layer of culture?
Assumptions about existence
The problems of daily life are so routine, but we do not think about what we do
What is power distance
The extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions, organizations, and societies is distributed unequally
What is Holfstedesd's cultural framework?
Individualism vs collectivism
Masculinity vs femininity
Long term vs short term orientation
What is individualism
Degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of a group and believe in individual rights above all else
What is Collectivism
Emphasizes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them
How is individualism and collectivism distinctive?
I vs WE
The extent to which the culture favours traditional masculine roles of achievement, power, and control
A national cultural attribute that sees little difference between male and female roles. Places high value on the quality of life, interpersonal relationships, nurturing behaviours
The extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them
Long Term Orientation
Emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence
Short Term Orientation
Emphasizes the past and the present, respect for tradition and fulfillment of social obligations
What are the Stages of Intercultural Sensitivity
What are the three predictors of Power Distance
Climate: Moderate to cold climates have low power distance
Population size: higher the population, higher power distance
The distribution of wealth: rather than the overall amount, is the best predictor of power distribution
Why do colder climates have less power distance
In colder climates survival and growth can occur only if the culture can develop only if everyone works together
Why do large population sizes generally mean greater power distance
Large societies are inherently more complex than smaller ones and require more centralization of power to function, which results in the creation of a political hierarchy and elite who should not be challenged or questioned
What we pay attention to and what we ignore, protecting against information overload