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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (32):
1

What is cultural identity

The particular character of the group communication system that emerges in a particular situation

2

Cultural identities are ... Through communication

negotiated, co-created, reinforced, and challenged

3

Cultural identity emerges when...?

Messages are exchanged

4

Avowel

Our preception of ourselves

5

Ascription

Our perception of others and their perception of us

6

Core Symbols

The turban, chadur, wai, etc

7

Labels

The hyphenated Canadian
Chines-Canadian

8

Norms

Standards for performing culture appropriately and effectively and includes:
Affective (emotions and feelings) cognitive, behaviours

9

Context is

the information that surrounds an event; it is bound up with the meaning of the event

10

High Context:

A HC communication or message is one in which most of the information is already in the person, while very little is in the coded, explicitly transmitted part of the message

11

High Context: The group prefers to derive meaning from ...

Observations

12

Is communication Indirect or direct?

Indirect

13

What 3 clues indicate HC context?

1. Pay attention to contextual cues, non verbal behaviour, silence and sometimes metaphors
2. Emphasis is based on trust in nonverbal communication
3. Less verbal, comfortable with silence and reading between the lines

14

Low Context (LC)

The mass of the information is vested in the explicit code

15

In low context situations the group prefers to derive meaning from...

talk

16

Cultures become high context when cultures make sure that everyone has the same...

experiences

17

What are the three face orientations

1. Self-Face
2. Other-Face
3. Mutual - Face

18

Self- Face

The protective concern for one's own image when face is threatened in a conflict situation

19

Other-Face

Concern for other party's image in conflict

20

Mutual Face:

Considers both parties image

21

Face can be...

threatened, enhanced, given, saved and negotiated

22

What are five tips for saving face?

1. Do not point out peoples mistakes in public
2. Only give sincere complements
3. Show respect to elders, rank and status are very important
4. Politely refuse gifts, be conscious of gift giving
5. Dont point out people when they bend rules

23

Universalist Behaviours

Tend to be rule based and abstract
Tend to imply equity; everyone should be treated the same
Tend to resist exceptions that might weaken the rule. There is a fear that once you start to make exceptions for those who break the rule "the system" will collapse or fall into disrepute
Frequently uses or tries to use the courts to mediate conflicts

24

Particularist Behaviours

Focus on the exceptional nature of present circumstances. This person is not just a fellow citizen but my friend, brother, husband, business partner or associate. I must therefore sustain and protect this person no matter what the rules say
Is based on the logic of the heart and human relationship
Relationships are close and long lasting
Job turnover is low and commitments to labour force long term

25

High context agreement......

Agreement to do business. If conditions change, details change

26

Low Context agreement....

Rules and details governing contract are agreed upon first

27

High context agreement......

Agreement to do business. If conditions change, details change

28

Low Context agreement....

Rules and details governing contract are agreed upon first

29

North American Western Culture Nature and Society: 4 things

1. Heterogeneity- many
2. Horizontal - Equality
3. Guilt - Me, me alone
4. Doing something

30

Non Western Cultures Nature and Society 4 things

1. Homogeneity - one
2. Vertical Societies - Power Distance
3. Shame
4. Being

31

North American Western Culture Interpersonal Relationship 2 things (Kinda 3)

Independence
1. Informal
2. Status is Achieved

32

Non Western Cultures Interpersonal Relationships 2 kinda 3 items

Co-Dependence
1. Formal
2. Ascribed Status- being given the work or job