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Flashcards in Final Exam Review Deck (31):
1

1.How do spatial relations demonstrate power?

Spatial relations demonstrate different amounts of power depending on where the boss is located, how big his office is etc. A boss with a big office that is separated from his employees represents a bigger spatial relationship.

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2. Describe how a low power distance is reflected in a culture politically, socially, relationally and professionally.

Low Power Distance
1. Politically- (change made through democratic process)
2. Socially -concerned with narrowing the gap between wealthy and poor; educated and uneducated
- Social mobility is possible
- Assistance for unemployed, medical care, and charitable agencies are important parts of these societies
3. Relationally- less formal in addressing superior
- Why? Status is achieved/ earned
4. Professionally – employees are less reliant on superiors; they provide suggestions to superiors

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3. Describe how power distance is reflected in organizational, structure?

Tall Structure
- Power is centralized
- Authoritative approach
- High Hierarchy
- High power distance
Flat Structure
- Power is decentralized
- Low power distance

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4. Referring to the Big Dog Software Case, what should the owners of this company have known about Japanese culture prior to the arrival of their Japanese partners from Ichi Ban Heavy Industries of Japan.

- High power distance
- Status is important
- Expectation of treatment depending on status

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5. Explain the types of power and the preference for specific types of power depending on the national cultural value of power distance.

Legitimate power
– used in low power distance cultures
-Power derived from a job, position, or status and held as belonging to the person in such a position.
- Used when boss tells you to do something
Referent power
- Influence over others, acquired from being well liked or respected by them.
- Being a famous hockey player telling fans what to do
– high power distance cultures
Expert power
- Ability to influence other parties based on expertise and knowledge. Expert power in an organization is the ability to influence the behavior of others in the organization based solely on past experience and expertise in a specific area.
- Doctors giving patients advice and or telling them what to do
– both high and low power distance
Reward power
– low power distance
The most popular forms are offering raises, promotions, and simply compliments.
- The extent to which an entity can control the dispensing of rewards or benefits.
Coercive power
– high power distance cultures
Authority or power that is dependent on fear, suppression of free will, and/or use of punishment or threat, for its existence.
- Hitler
Information power
– both high and low power distance
-A person who has access to valuable information
- Bankers, Fuck I don’t know

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6. Describe how high power distance is reflected in a culture politically, socially, relationally and professionally.

Politically:
- in a high power distance culture change is not made in a democratic process

Socially:
- Social divide is huge in a high power distance culture because there is a difference in the wealthy and the poor, and the educated and the uneducated.
- high power distance cultures assign importance to a person's position in society
Relationally:
- more formal in addressing superiors and more respect
- status is ascribed
- titles are important
- strong ties are associated with the internal structure of the nuclear family and its extended members, affects everything from from structure to customs in the family

Professionally:
- employees are more reliant and dependent on their superiors they are reluctant on providing feedback, opinions or suggestions
- not vocal with conflict or unhappy in their work environment
- a hierarchy of power is demonstrated in the workplace when a superior or "boss" is granted power and privilege

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7. What gestures signal power in business environments?

- the way they dress, being business professional
- firm hand shake
- slow movement
- office space and size, corner office you are important, cubicle you are less important
- bowing
- wai
- who enters the room first
- standing up for the boss
- posture
- eye contact
- sitting at the head of the table
- title

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8. What is culture shock?

Culture shock is a natural process that results from a loss of cultural anchors.

Some examples of anchors are:
- food
- family
- politeness
- laws

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9. What are some barriers to effective cross-cultural communication?

• Assume similarities instead of differences;
• Ethnocentrism;
• Language difference (context);
• Nonverbal misinterpretation;
• Preconceptions & stereotypes;
• The tendency to evaluate;
• High anxiety/stress.

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10. What are cultural anchors and how do them impact cultural shock?

• Food
• Politeness
• Treatment of animals
• Rules and regulations
• Laws and personal safety
• Clothing and dress codes
• Technology
• Bathrooms and cleanliness
• Family and friends
• Humor
• Physical activities
They may impact culture shock with problems of sleeping, staying awake, problems of eating too much or not enough, getting sick, being socially alienated, being affected by finances, poverty or wealth of the country.

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11. What are the four stages of culture shock?

Honey moon stage
Irritability and hostility
Gradually adjust
Adaptation and biculturalism

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12. Referring specifically to the Canwall case study how did the Canadians and Chinese negotiating methods differ?

Chinese negotiating methods had a slow start and focus on building trust relationships. They asked the same questions many time to ensure consistency of information and technology. Chinese negotiators were indirect. They negotiated and discussed collectively in groups. On the other hand, Canadians were direct and wanted to get it done fast and right away. They didn’t work in group but individually.

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What were Dr. Sedky’s observations about doing business in Egypt?

There is so much traffic being late is typical.
- If you are going to bring business to Egypt, it should be innovative and make existing operations more efficient.
- Feasts - Do not feel like you have to eat everything. Bring a present for host and thank for the meal. Arrive either on time if by yourself or a bit late if you’re with Egyptians.
- She commented that Egyptians are not very open-minded to international trade and are not very stable but they are in a great geographic location, which is known as the “mother of the world”.

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14. What are some strategies for dealing with culture shock?

- Get involved in activities and socialize
- Don’t expect too much from yourself or others
- Humour
- Accept as normal process
- Talk about it
- Don’t be constantly in contact with home
- Learn about culture and learn language
- Have a mentor

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15. Explain Guanxi?

Guanxi is the ability to tap into your network of resources and connections to get something done.

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16. What are strategies for helping employees adjust to overseas assignments?

- Have pre-departure training, a mentor, and knowledge of host country
- Understanding of political, economic, and social situation
- Pick someone with low uncertainty avoidance
- Pick someone with overseas experience with an understanding of the language
- Pick someone with high self-esteem, self-efficient, tolerant, and open-minded

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17. What are some symptoms of the culture shock phase?

Some of the symptoms of the culture shock phase are: trouble sleeping, problems staying away, sick or minor ailments, avoid contact with locals, anxiety and depression, eating to much, not eating enough, social alienation and finances.

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18. Explain what selection criteria are important for choosing over seas personnel?

Some of the important criteria are being: open minded, adaptable, able to speak the local language, self-efficacy

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19. Describe how being cultures differ from doing culture.

Being cultures enjoy harmony with the environment, relationship driven, p-time, focus on long term growth, work to live and harmony with people and world. Doing cultures are competitive, live to work, decision driven, short term gains, expect results and m-time

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20. Referring Dr. Sedky’s presentation, what did you learn about Muslims?

We should not associate and think all Muslims are the same as the extremist sects because they do not associate or believe all the same things.

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How can culture impact negotiations? Refer specifically to the articles placed on Moodle as well as the information in your text

- Non-verbal behavior plays a crucial role in how people from different cultures negotiate in business.
- Collectivistic vs. Individualistic
- Saving face → high context culture and collectivistic culture.
- High context vs. Low context
- Gender roles
- Power distance
- Uncertainty avoidance
- Universalistic- does not make exception/ Particularistic- tend to make exception and based on certain circumstances. (contracts)

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22 Explain the similarities and difference of reentry shock and culture shock

- culture shock is a loss of cultural anchors: food, treatment of animals, politeness, dress, people, family, friends, humor, law, rules, clothing, technology, personal safety.
- Reentry Shock: Same pattern as culture shock, adjustment to lifestyle, changes to social life, adjustment to standard of living

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23 What is intercultural competence and what strategies can you use to help develop your intercultural competence

- the ability of successful communication with people of other cultures
- listening and learning from people
- educate yourself
- respect cultural differences

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24 What are some features of low power distance cultures?

- Horizontal
- Value democracy

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1. Using a cultural framework, compare and contrast Japanese and Canadian culture.

Canada
- low context
- Look to control the environment
- High power distance
- Individualistic - culture focuses on individuality and independence

Japan
- low context communication
- Silence is common in communication
- Time and deadlines are irrelevant
- Look to harmonize the environment and see it as more than systematic
- High uncertainty avoidance- less adaptable to changes
- High power distance – authority is ascribed
- Collectivistic

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2. What could a Mexican coming to Canada expect to experience in terms of culture shock? Include the four general stages of culture shock in your response.

Honey moon stage
- full of observations and new discovery
- See people speaking English everywhere (nationals speaking the language)
- Would love our Tim Horton’s and other exotic cuisine

Irritability and hostility
- start to notice changes
- can cause an unpleasant feeling
- factors such as in public hygiene etc
-
Gradually adjust
- after about 6-12 months
- develops problem solving skills to deal with cultural barriers
- becomes accustomed to new culture and begins to develop new routines

Adaptation and biculturalism
- able to participate fully in the culture
- may keep traits from previous culture

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3. What are the six kinds of power? When and why would you experience each? Please provide examples of each and a situation in which they would occur.

Legitimate power

-Power derived from a job, position, or status and held as belonging to the person in such a position.
- Used when boss tells you to do something

Referent Power

- Influence over others, acquired from being well liked or respected by them.
- Being a famous hockey player telling fans what to do

Expert power
- Ability to influence other parties based on expertise and knowledge. Expert power in an organization is the ability to influence the behavior of others in the organization based solely on past experience and expertise in a specific area.
- Doctors giving patients advice and or telling them what to do

Reward Power
The most popular forms are offering raises, promotions, and simply compliments.
- The extent to which an entity can control the dispensing of rewards or benefits.

Coercive Power-
Authority or power that is dependent on fear, suppression of free will, and/or use of punishment or threat, for its existence.
- Hitler



Information Power
-A person who has access to valuable information
- Bankers, Fuck I don’t know

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4. Identify and explain the four ways in which power distance is demonstrated as a national cultural value, in both a high and low power distance.

Politically
- democratic change rather than removing and replacing people in power
Socially
- concerned with narrowing gap, social between all positions vs assigning great importance and status to people in high power, do not socialize with lower class
Relationally
- less social in addressing superiors vs strong ties with families, structure etc
Professionally
- employees are less reliant on supervisors, give suggestions vs major emphasis on hierarchal power in workplace

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5. Compare and contrast the differences in power distance between two different countries.

India
- caste system
- very hot climate
- status is ascribed
- High population
Canada
- class system
- high power distance
- although achieved rather than ascribed
- moderate climate

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6. How do being cultures differ from doing cultures - give examples of to demonstrate your understanding.

Do
- competitive
- Live to work
- Decision driven
- Short term gains
- Have fewer vacation days
- Expect results
- Mtime
Be
- Cooperative, collaborative
- Relationship driven
- Focus on long term growth
- Lock for process not always product
- Ptime
- Harmony with environment, people, world

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High power distance national culture view

High Power Distance
1. Politically, often accomodate change by removing and replacing people in positions of power- sometimes by decree, appointment, force
2. Socially- high power distance cultures assign importance to a person's position in society
3. Relationally - strong ties are associated with the internal structure of the nuclear family and its extended members, affects everything from from structure to customs in the family
4. Professionally- a hierarchy of power is demonstrated in the workplace when a superior or "boss" is granted power and privilege