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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (46):
1

List the biomes.

1. Tundra
2. Boreal Forest
3. Temperate Deciduous Forest
4. Temperate Rainforest
5. Grassland
6. Tropical Rainforest
7. Desert
8. Permanent Ice (Polar Ice)

2

List at least 3 facts about tundra

● Permafrost
● Flat terrain (leads to poor drainage)
● Cold/dark for most of the year
● Thin layer of topsoil thaws in summer, which creates many marshes and pools
● There is 24 hours of sunlight in the few days of summer that this biome gets
● No trees because the growing season is too short
● Many plants grow close to the ground, where they absorb the warmth trapped by the dark soil and are protected from the wind
● Animals adapted to reduce heat loss
○ ie. Arctic foxes/hares have compact bodies and shorter legs/ears to reduce heat loss.)
○ Animals grow slower and reproduce less frequently to conserve energy.
-
● Only in upper hemisphere; not found in southern hemisphere
● Less than 25 cm/year of precipitation
● Annual summer average temperatures range from 3ºC to 12ºC.
● Winter temperatures range from -20ºC to -30ºC.

3

List at least 3 facts about boreal forest

● Short summer growing season (~50 days)
● Soil is very wet
● Coniferous trees
● Many marshes, shallow lakes, and wetlands (they hold vast amounts of water)
● Insect-eating birds (ie. warblers) migrate south in the fall
● Seed eating birds (ie. finch) stay year-round.
● Animals have adapted to cold, snowy conditions
○ Small mammals (ie. chipmunks/shrews) burrow in winter to stay warm
○ Moose have thick insulating coats, and large bodies to help them retain body heat.
○ Snowshoe hares change from summer brown to winter white, allowing them to camouflage from predators.
● Insects multiply rapidly during the short summer.
● Reptiles and amphibians are rare since they are not adapted to survive low temperatures.
-
● Precipitation is 30 cm to 85 cm annually, much of it
falling as snow.
● Temperatures are below freezing half of the year and often drop to -40ºC.
● Only found in northern hemisphere (summer months same as us)

4

List at least 3 facts about temperate deciduous forest

● Large seasonal changes between summer/winter
○ Temperatures changes during a day can also be large
● Four distinct seasons
● Long, warm growing season
● Enriched soil due to fallen leaves from trees
● Plants grow in 4-5 layers
● Deciduous trees shed their leaves in winter to prevent water loss and reduce breakage of limbs with heavy snow
○ Thick bark limits moisture loss from the trees
● Some animals hibernate
● Many birds migrate during winter
● Amphibians live here
● Squirrels, chipmunks rabbits, skunks, cougars, deer, wolves, bears, etc.
-
● 75 cm-180cm of precipitation, distributed relatively equally throughout the year
● Temperatures range from -30ºC in winter - 30ºC in summer

5

List at least 3 facts about temperate rainforest

● Occur in narrow strips along coastlines that are backed by mountains, where the ocean winds drop large amounts of moisture on the windward side of the mountains
● Trees can grow very tall due to high precipitation
● Large evergreens (ie. Sitka spruce and Douglas fir)
● Mosses are draped on trees
● Lichens cling on tree trunks (where they receive more light than on the forest floor)
● Ferns, mosses, fungi that survive in the shade cover the forest floor.
● Most animals live on/near the forest floor
○ Protected by wind/rain
● Birds and small mammals eat seeds that fall on the forest floor
● Many insects live in the tree bark and decomposing plant matter
○ Birds with long beaks and amphibians eat these insects.
-
● Rainfall exceeds 200cm/year
● Average temperatures range from 5ºC to 25ºC.
● Coastal fog supplies additional moisture

6

List at least 3 facts about grassland

● Land is flat
● Soil is rich and fertile in temperate grassland due to growth/decay of deep grass roots.
○ Soil is less rich in tropical grassland because nutrients are washed away by heavy rain.
● Strong winds may cause soil erosion
● Grass fires are common in hot tropical grasslands (less common in temperate grasslands)
● Lots of grass
● Trees are scarce
○ Limited rainfall
○ Fire/grazing animals kill seedlings
● Many grazing animals
-
● Precipitation usually occurs in late spring or early summer and is followed by an extended dry period
Temperature:
● 25-100cm/year of precipitation
● Hot summer temperatures: 30ºC
● Cold winter temperatures below: -10ºC
Tropical:
● 50-130cm/year of precipitation
● Daily temperatures range from 25ºC to 30ºC.

7

List at least 3 facts about tropical rainforest

● Soil is poor; nutrients are quickly recycled and not retained; heavy rain washes minerals away
● Forest floor is very dark; limits plant growth
● Greatest plant/animal diversity
● Plants grow in many layers
● Tall trees absorb most of the sunlight
● Vines/plants grow on tall trees to get sunlight
● Leaves have narrow tips to allow rain to run off quickly, reducing the weight on the branches
● Most animals live in trees due to the limited amount of vegetation on the forest floor
● Many are specialists (adapted to particular food/habitat) so there is reduced competition.
-
● Rainfall is about 250 cm/year
● Temperature is a constant 20ºC to 25ºC year-round.

8

List at least 3 facts about desert

● Very little rainfall
● Can be either hot/cold
● In hot deserts, soils are often very salty b/c minerals do not get washed away
● In cold deserts, most precipitation falls as snow, but there is rain in the spring.
○ Soil is often salty; little water erosion occurs.
● Few plant species
● Reptiles are common
● Animals are active mainly at night, when temperatures are lower (in hot deserts)
● Plants are adapted to the limited water
○ Cacti have thick, fleshy stems that conserve water; their roots extend metres away from the plant to absorb water
○ Other plants have small, thick, waxy leaves that store water
● Plants have spines or produce chemicals to protect them from being eaten
● Most plants are less than 1m tall in cold deserts
● Small mammals burrow to escape the cold (cold deserts)
-
Hot deserts:
● Less than 25 cm/year
● Hot days average 38ºC
● Cold nights average 7ºC
Cold deserts:
● Less than 25 cm/year (mostly snow)
● Hot, summer days average 21ºC to 26ºC
● Cold, winter days average -2ºC to 4ºC

9

List at least 3 facts about permanent ice

● Very strong winds
● Little soil
● Little fresh water is available due to freezing conditions
● Antarctica is very cold almost all year-round
● Lichens can survive in this biome
○ Dark-coloured organisms that consist of fungi/algae and can tolerate drought/cold; they can absorb more sunlight due to their darker pigmentation
● More plant/animal diversity in the arctic than antarctica
○ Many species of moss/flowering plants in Arctic; only a few in Antarctica
○ Arctic: Polar bears, walruses, seals, arctic foxes, some insects
○ Antarctica: Penguins, marine mammals (ie. leopard seals)
-
● Less than 50 cm/year (mostly snow)
● Average Arctic winter temperatures are -30ºC.
● Average Arctic summer temperatures range from 3ºC to 14ºC
● Antarctica has recorded temperatures as low as -89ºC
● Average Antarctica summer temperatures range from 9ºC on the coast to -30ºC inland.

10

Tundra - Climate

● Less than 25 cm/year of precipitation
● Annual summer average temperatures range from 3ºC to 12ºC.
● Winter temperatures range from -20ºC to -30ºC.
● Only found in northern hemisphere (summer months same as us)

11

Boreal forest - Climate

● Precipitation is 30 cm to 85 cm annually, much of it
falling as snow.
● Temperatures are below freezing half of the year and often drop to -40ºC.
● Only found in northern hemisphere (summer months same as us)

12

Temperate deciduous forest - Climate

● 75 cm-180 cm of precipitation, distributed relatively equally throughout the year
● Temperatures range from -30ºC in winter to 30ºC in summer

13

Temperate rainforest - Climate

● Rainfall exceeds 200 cm/year
● Average temperatures range from 5ºC to 25ºC.
● Coastal fog supplies additional moisture

14

Grassland - Climate

Temperature:
● 25-100 cm/year of precipitation
● Hot summer temperatures: 30ºC
● Cold winter temperatures below: -10ºC
Tropical:
● 50-130cm/year of precipitation
● Daily temperatures range from 25ºC to 30ºC.
Both:
● Precipitation usually occurs in late spring or early summer and is followed by an extended dry period

15

Tropical rainforest - Climate

● Rainfall is about 250 cm/year
● Temperature is a constant 20ºC to 25ºC year-round.

16

Desert - Climate

Hot deserts:
● Less than 25 cm/year
● Hot days average 38ºC
● Cold nights average 7ºC
Cold deserts:
● Less than 25 cm/year (mostly snow)
● Hot, summer days average 21ºC to 26ºC
● Cold, winter days average -2ºC to 4ºC

17

Permanent ice - Climate

● Less than 50 cm/year (mostly snow)
● Average Arctic winter temperatures are -30ºC.
● Average Arctic summer temperatures range from 3ºC to 14ºC
● Antarctica has recorded temperatures as low as -89ºC
● Average Antarctica summer temperatures range from 9ºC on the coast to -30ºC inland.

18

Biosphere

Thin layer of air, land, and water on or near Earth's surface in which all living things on Earth exist.

19

Biome

Large regions that have similar biotic components, such as similar plants and animals, as well as similar abiotic components, such as temperature and precipitation.

20

Ecosystem

A community and its physical environment (both abiotic and biotic factors).

21

Community

A group of populations living and interacting with each other in a habitat.
The populations are dependant on each other.

22

Population

A group of organisms of the same species living in the same area at the same time.

23

Habitat

The physical area in which individuals of a certain species can usually be found.

24

Niche

The special role an organism plays in an ecosystem, including the way in which it contributes to and fits into its environment.

25

Abiotic/Physical factor

The nonliving parts of the environment.
(ie. sunlight, water, temperature, soil, minerals, etc.)

26

Biotic factor

The living organisms of the environment.
(ie. plants, animals, fungi, etc.)

27

Species

A group of organisms more or less alike that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring under natural conditions.

28

What are the types of biotic interactions?

● Symbiosis/Symbiotic relationships
● Competition
● Predation

29

What is symbiosis?
List the types of symbiotic relationships

● The interaction between members of two different species that live in together in a close association.
● Mutualism, commensalism, parasitism

30

Mutualism

Both species benefit from the relationship.

31

Commensalism

One species benefits, and the other is unaffected by the relationship.

32

Parasitism

One species benefits, and the other is harmed by the relationship.

33

Competition

A harmful interaction between 2 or more organisms, when they compete for the same resource (ie. food) in the same location at the same time.

34

What is predation?
List the two types of predation.

● A term used to describe predator-prey interactions in which one organism (the predator) eats all or part of another organism (the prey).
● One organism benefits and the other is harmed.
● Moves energy through an ecosystem.
● Interspecific competition, intraspecific competition

35

Ecology

The study of relationships between living organisms, as well as the relationship between them and their environments.

36

Interspecific competition

Competition between different species

37

Intraspecific competition

Competition within the same species

38

Scientists have divided the Earth into biomes based on 4 factors.
What are these 4 factors?

● Temperature/precipitation
● Latitude
● Elevation
● Ocean currents

39

Temperature/precipitation
What does precipitation include?

● The most important abiotic factors that determine the characteristics of a biome
● Precipitation includes: rainfall, snow, mist, and fog.

40

Latitude

● The distance measured in degrees north or south from the equator
● The closer you are to the equator, the hotter the temperature will be (angle of incidence)
○ The equator gets sun year-round.
● There is more rain at the equator because the heat causes the moisture in the air to rise quickly, which cools in the upper atmosphere and falls down as rain.

41

Elevation

● The height of a land mass above sea level.
● The higher the elevation, the colder it generally gets, due to the fact that the atmosphere is thinner in higher elevations, meaning that it retains less heat.
● The windward side of a mountain receives more precipitation than the leeward side, because the windward side shields the leeward side from rain/clouds.

42

Ocean currents

Ocean currents generally make the climate warmer and wetter.

43

Abiotic + Abiotic interaction

Interaction between two abiotic factors.
ie. Carbon dioxide interacting with water to form carbonic acid.

44

Abiotic + Biotic interaction

Interaction between an abiotic factor and a biotic factor.
ie. Plants goes uses photosynthesis to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and food.

45

List at least 3 prey adaptations.

● Mimicry
● Poisonous
● Visual deception
● Chemical defense
● Offensive weapons
● Camouflage

46

List at least 3 predator adaptations.

● Concealment
● Filter feeding
● Tool use
● Steal
● Lures
● Traps