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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (38):
1

Natural Selection

- Process that makes changes possible in living things
- Members of a species having certain characteristics that give them an advantage over other members of that species will be in better condition to mate
- These individuals then may pass these favourable characteristics on to their offsprings

2

Adaptive Radiation

- The change from a common ancestor into a number of different species that radiate out to inhabit different niches
- Each species is adapted to a particular niche and therefore gathers different types of food

3

Ecological Succession

- Changes that take place over time in the types of organisms that live in an area
- Primary and Secondary

4

Primary Succession

- Occurs in an area where no soil exists

5

Pioneer Species

- Lichens and other organisms that are the first ones to survive and reproduce in an area
- Change the biotic and abiotic environment in a variety of ways (create soil)

6

Climax community/Mature community

- Forms from ecological succession
- May appear unchanged but experience constant changes
- Multiple and sustainable trophic level and

7

Secondary Succession

- Occurs as a result of a disturbance to an area that already has soil and was once the home of organisms
- Occurs much faster

8

What causes primary succession?

- Retreating glaciers
- Cooler lava from volcanic eruption

9

How do lichens create soil?

- First carried by wind and rain
- Obtain nutrients from rock by secreting chemicals that break down the rock
- After they decay, they also added organic matter to the developing soil

10

Flooding

- Occurs in coastal areas when the volume of water exceeds the ability of the water body to contain it
- Can result in soil erosion and soil pollution and widespread disease

11

Tsunamis

- Caused by large earthquakes or underwater volcanic eruptions
- Can change the composition of the soil
- Plants that cannot survive in a salty environment die

12

Drought

- Below-average rainfall in an area over a period of time
- Can destroy habitats when water becomes scarce and plants and animals die
- Can result in crop failures and livestock deaths

13

Insect Infestations

- Younger trees defend against insects by producing resin
- Events that keep beetle infestations in check (long, cold winters) are no long occurring

14

Resin

- Produced by trees to trap and flush the adult beetles out of the tree

15

When is resin flow reduced?

- Many insects attack at once
- The tree is stressed from overcrowding, drought or grazing by animals

16

Sustainability

- Ability of an ecosystem to sustain ecological processes
- Using the resources of an ecosystem to meet our needs without reducing the function and health of the ecosystem

17

Land Use

- Ways we obtain and use natural materials

18

Habitat Loss

- Destruction of habitats, which usually results from human activities

19

Habitat fragmentation

- Division of habitats into smaller isolated fragments
- These isolated pockets of ecosystems affect plant pollination, seed dispersal, wildlife movement and plant, animal reproduction

20

Deforestation

- Practice in which forests are logged or cleared for human use and never replanted

21

Soil Degradation

- Can occur when water and wind erosion removes topsoil from bare land

22

Soil Compaction

- Occurs when soil particles are squeezed together and the air spaces between the particles are reduced
- Caused by vehicles and grazing animals
- Reduces movement of water, air and soil organisms
- Growth of plants is hindered nad run-offs increased

23

Aeration

- Mechanically removes small plugs of soil
- One method that reduces run-off by improving the movement of air and water through soil

24

Resource exploitation

- Exploiting natural resources

25

Contamination

- Introduction of chemicals, toxins, wastes, or micro-organisms into the environment extinction concentrations that are harmful to living things

26

Overexploitation

- Use or extraction of a resource until it is depleted
- Cause extinction

27

Extinction

- Dying out of a species

28

Traditional Ecological Knowledge

- First Nation's understanding of the plants, animals and nature
- Reflects human experience with nature gained over centuries
- Takes the form of stories, songs, cultural beliefs, rituals, community laws and practices in agriculture, forest, ocean

29

Polyculture

- Growing a variety of plants
- Increases amount of nutrients and helpful micro-organism
- Reduces soil erosion and weed invasion

30

Native Species

- Plants and animals that naturally inhabit an area

31

Introduced/Foreign Species

- Carried into the area intentionally or accidentally
- Most were harmless and beneficial
- Some are invasive species

32

Invasive Species

- Organisms that can take over the habitat of native species or invade their bodies

33

What are the four major impacts of invasive species?

1. Competition
2. Predation
3. Disease and Parasites
4. Habitat alteration

34

Invasive Species Competition

- They disturb the balance established by the original community (of sharing resources)
- Outcompete native species for essential resources such as food and habitat
Ex) Carpet burweed

35

Invasive Species Predation

- More impact on prey as they may not have adaptations to escape/fight the invasive species yet
- Ecosystem is affected if keystone species are preyed upon
Ex) Yellow crazy ants prey on red crabs

36

Invasive Species Disease and Parasite

- Weaken immune response of native species
- The weakening provides more opportunities for less dominant species to outcompete other species, severely altering the ecosystem
Ex) Parasite sea lamprey in Great Lakes
Ex) Blister rust (Fungi) attacking Whiteback pine

37

Invasive Species Habitat Alteration

- May change light levels, decrease dissolved oxygen in ocean, change soil chemistry, increase soil erosion
- Makes the ecosystem unsuitable for native species
- Upset balance of nutrient cycling, pollination and energy flow
Ex) White boars (spreading weeds)

38

What are some introduced invasive species in BC?

- Eurasian milfoil
- Norway rat
- American bullfrog
- European starling