Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

Sociology > Chapter 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (51)
Loading flashcards...
1

Sociology

The study of society and human behavior within the society

2

Goals of science

•to explain why something happens
•generalization
•predict what will happen in the future

3

Social Darwinism

Societies evolve

4

Macro Level

Society is a whole unit made up of interrelated parts that work together

5

Hypothesis

Educated guess

6

Survey

Asking a series of questions

7

Random sample

Everyone has the same chance of being included in the study

8

Generalizability

Make what we found apply to broader groups

9

Symbolic interactionism

Our behavior depends on how we define ourselves and others

10

Quantitative research

Numbers and stats

11

Secondary data

Analyzing data collected by others

12

Participant research

Research in which the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting

13

Class conflict

Conflict based on race, gender & so forth

14

Comte

•Father of sociology
•1st person to use the scientific method

15

Disadvantages of interviews

Inaccurate
•people say what they want you to hear

16

Culture shock

Disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a different culture

17

Symbol

Something to which people attach meaning and which they use to communicate

18

Norms

Rules of behavior

19

Sanction

Can be positive or negative and include:
•positive informal
•negative informal
•positive formal
•negative formal

20

Culture

The language, beliefs, norms, values, behaviors and material objects passed from one generation to the next

21

Ethnocentrism

The tendency to view our culture as superior

22

Language

System of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought

23

Cultural universals

Similarities one culture to the next

24

Cultural lag

Some aspects of culture change more rapidly than others
•human behavior lagging behind technological innovations

25

Counter culture

A group whose ideas, values and beliefs place them in different opposition to the larger culture

26

Socialization

•Lifelong process where we learn the norm
•forms our identity

27

Freud

Developed a theory of personality stating that it consisted of 3 elements

28

Gender socialization

There are different expectations for males and females in our society and these are taught to us from birth

29

Agents of socialization

People or groups that affect our self concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life

30

Feral

Children assumed to have been raised by animals in the wilderness isolated form humans

31

Gender socialization

There are different expectations for male and female in our society and these are taught to us from birth

32

Social Structure

The framework of society that surrounds us; consists of the ways that people and groups are related to one another; this framework gives direction to and sets limits on our behavior

33

Status set

All of us occupy several positions at the same time

34

Group

3 or more people who regularly interact with each other and have something in common

35

Gesellschaft

Dominated by impersonal relationships

36

Gender Role

Different behaviors and attitudes are expected of us because we are a girl or boy

37

Social Interaction

What people do when they are in one another's presence

38

Status

Refers to a position that someone occupies

39

Ascribed status

Assigned by birth or tradition

40

Role exit

Leaving a role

41

Role

Set of behaviors, obligations, and privileges

42

Patriarchy

Male dominated society

43

How we avoid social interaction

Hide, don't make eye contact

44

Instrumental leader

Focus is on meeting the goals by keeping everyone working toward the goal

45

Bureaucracy

A formal organization with a hierarchy of authority and a clear division of labor; emphasis on impersonality of positions and written rules, communications and records

46

Reference group

We use to elevate ourselves

47

Ethnomethodology

Study of how people use background assumptions to make sense of life

48

Socialization

Lifelong process where we learn the norm
•forms our identity

48

Durkheim

•life goal to get get sociology recognized as an academic discipline
•Suicide rates

49

Structural functionalism

Society is a whole unit made up of interrelated parts that work together

50

The scientific method

1) select a topic
2) defining the problem
3) review of literature
4) form a hypothesis
5) chops a research method
6) collect the data
7) analyze the results
8) share the results