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Flashcards in Chapter 1. Deck (38):
1

Password or hotspot 2.0. What is and what can it be used for? What encryption does it use?

Designed to revolutionize the end user experience when connecting to wifi hotspots. This will be done by
1.Automatically identifying the hotspot and connect to it.
2. Automatically authenticating the user to the network Extensible Authentication Protocol.
3. Providing secure transmission using WPA2 - Enterprise encryption.

2

The WiFi alliance needs all new certified devices to have robust security network capabilities. What is this? What are the requirements? What amendment did this come from?

Robust Security Network capabilities are security mechanisms that were originally defined in the IEEEi amendment. Devices must support Wi-Fi protected access (WPA) and WPA2 security mechanisms for personal and enterprise environments. Must also support Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which is used to validate the identity of the wireless device or user.

3

What does the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) due?

Creates standards for compatibility and coexistence between networking equipment.

4

What does The Internet Engineering Task Force do?

Responsible for creating Internet standards. Many of these standards are integrated into the wireless networking and security protocols and standards.

5

What does the wifi alliance due?

Is responsible for creating Internet standards. Many of these standards are integrated into the wireless networking and security protocols and standards.

6

What is a keying method?

The method of manipulating a signal so that it can can represent multiple pieces of data.

7

What is a symbol period? What does the receiving station do with this?

When a signal being received is divided into periods of time.

The receiving station then samples or examines the wave during this symbol period to determine the amplitude of the wave. Depending on the value of the wave’s amplitude, the receiving station can determine the binary value.

8

What is current State keying?

With current state techniques, the current value (the current state) of the
signal is used to distinguish between 0s and 1s.

If the state stays the same, it could be a 1.
If the state changes, then it could be a 0.

9

What is frequency shift keying? What state is it? How is the data interpreted? Why is the not practical today?

Varies the frequency of the signal to represent the binary data.

This is a CURRENT state technique. Where one frequency can represent a 0 bit and another frequency can represent a 1 bit. The shifting of data can determine the data being transmitted.

The faster frequency wave is interpreted as a binary 1, and the slower frequency wave is interpreted as a binary 0.

10

What is hotspot 2.0 or passpoint and how does it work ? What encryption does it use?

This allows a client device to automatically identify and connect to an AP hotspot, automatically authenticate the user using extensive auth protcol (EAP), and then provide a secure method of communication using WPA.

11

What is multiple phase-shift keying?

When more than two phases are used.

12

What is phase-shift keying? What state does it use? Is this used today? What does the more advanced versions do?

PSK varies the phase of the signal to represent the binary data.

This is a state transition tecnique where the change of the phase can represent a 0 bit and the lack of a phase change can represent a 1 bit.

This is the primary techquie is the most widely used one in 802.11-2012.

The more advanced versions can understand more then 1 phase shift, and usually many during a cycle. Each of the four phase is capable of representation two binary vales like 00 or 01....instead of 0 or 1. Shortening transmission time.

13

What is phase? Divided into what? What does it mean to be out of phase?

A relative term. It is a relationship between two waves with the same frequency.

Divided into degrees.

Out of phase means they are not together.

14

What is signal modulation ?

When a carrier signal is fluctuated; fluctuations which result in either a 0 or a 1 transmission. Data.

15

What is state transition keying technique?

This means that if the current state of a signal is detected to be moving, then it could be a 1.

If the current state has not changed, it could be a 0.

16

What is the current standard for Wireless LAN, 802.11 ..... and who created this standard?

The IEEE designated the 802.11-2012 standard as a guideline to provide operational parameters for WLANs.

17

What is the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)?

Used to validate the identity of the wireless device or user.

18

What is the International Organization for Standardization ?

This is an organization that identifies business, government, and society needs and develops standards in partnership with the sectors that will put them to use.

19

What is the max data rate of A?

54 Mbps

20

What is the max data rate of ac?

1.3 Gbps

21

What is the max data rate of b?

11 Mbps

22

What is the max data rate of g?

54 Mbps

23

What is the max data rate of n?

450 Mbps

24

What is Voice Enterprise? What must it do at all times? What are the many criteria that need to be met for this to work?

Voice enterprise offers enhanced support for voice applications in enterprise wifi networks.

Enterprise grade equipment must provide consistently good voice quality under all network load conditions and coexist with data traffic.

1. Voice traffic must be placed in the highest-priority queue. (Access category voice, AC_VO)
2. Voice Enterprise equipment must also support seamless roaming
3. WPA2-Enterprise Security.
4. Optimization of power through the WMM-Power Save mechanism.
5. Traffic management through WMM admission control.

25

What is Wi-Fi direct ? What security encryption does it use?

Enables wi-fi devices to connect directly without the use of an access point, making it easier to print, share, sync, and display. Simple to configure with usually the press of a button; secured with WPA2.

26

What is wi-fi direct? What is it used for? What devices use it? What encryption method does it use?

Enables devices to connect directly without the use of an access point, making it easier to print, share, sync, and display.

Mobile devices, cameras and other small devices use this.

It is secured with WPA2?

27

What is Wi-fi protected setup? What encryption does it use? What methods are used to connect?

Wi-Fi Protected Setup defines simplified and automatic WPA and
WPA2 security configurations for home and small-business users. Users can easily configure a network with security protection by using either near field communication (NFC), a personal identification number (PIN) or a button located on the access point and the client device.

28

What is WMM and what amendment created it? What is it used for? What is need for it to be supported? Which wireless PHY is it mandatory for? Optional for?

WiFi Multimedia (WMM), is based on QoS mechanisms that were originally defined in IEEE 802.11e amendment.

Enabled wireless networks to give priority to traffic generated by different applications.

WMM is supported by both the access point and the client device, traffic generated by time sensitive applications such as voice and video can be prioritized for transmission on the half duplex RF medium.

Mandatory for 802.11n. Optional for all others below N.

29

What is WMM Power Save? Why is it important?

Helps conserve battery power for devices using WiFi radios by managing the time the client spends in sleep mode.

Devices like VoIP, handhelds scanners. Both device and access point must support WMM power save.

30

What wavelength and how is it usually measured?

The distance between similar points on two back to back waves.

Measured usually between the tips of peaks.

31

What year and where was the first wireless network created and what was it called?

1970, University of Hawaii, called ALOHAnet.

32

What year did 802.11b come out and how fast was it able to move data?

1999 and 11 Mbps.

33

What year was the original 802.11 amendment ratified and by whom?

In 1997, the IEEE ratified the original 802.11 standard

34

Which layer of the OSI is 802.11 wireless networking often implemented?

At the access layer.

35

Which of the following wireless communication parameters and usage are typically governed by a local reg authority?

Frequency, bandwidth, max transmit power, max EIRP, indoor/outdoor usage.

36

Which organization is responsible for RFC's ?

The IETF or international engineering task force.

37

Which sublayer of the OSI model's data link layer is used for communication between 802.11 radios?

The MAC layer.

38

WMM-Admission Control (Explain in detail)

Allows wifi networks to manage network traffic based upon
1. Channel conditions
2. Network traffic load
3, Type of traffic (Voice, video, best effort data, or background data)

The access point allows only the traffic that it can support to connect to the network, based on available network resources. This allows users to confidently know that, when the connection is established, the resources will be there to maintain it.