Flashcards in Chapter 10. Deck (32):
What was the standard that replaced PCMCIA cards?
What is the name of the integrated wireless radio inside of laptops?
Mini PCI or mini pci express.
Almost all mobile devices use what type of wireless radio?
Embedded. Integrated into the motherboard.
By the year 2020 the number of IoT will be...
By the year 2020 the number of wireless devices such as laptops and smart phones will be.....
If you are unsure what type of radio is in your device, 2x2 or 3x3, where can you find it?
The fcc website. Type in the FCC ID.
What is a management plane; Telecommunications.
Give examples for WLAN.
The management plane is defned by administrative network management, administration, and monitoring. An example of the management plane would be any
network management solution that can be used to monitor routers and switches and other
wired network infrastructure.
Examples include the configurations of SSIDS, security, WMM, channel, and power settings.
What is a control plane, telecommunications?
Give examples for WLAN.
The control plane consists of control or signaling information and is often defned as network intelligence or protocols. Dynamic layer 3 routing protocols, such as OSPF or BGP, used to forward data would be an example of control plane intelligence
found in routers. Content addressable memory (CAM) tables and Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) are control plane mechanisms used by layer 2 switches for data forwarding.
Dynamic RF, Roaming Mechanisms. Client Load Balancing. Mesh.
What is the data plane?
Give examples for WLAN.
The data plane, also known as the user plane, is the location in a network where user traffic is actually forwarded. An individual router where packets are forwarded is an example of the data plane. An individual switch forwarding an 802.3 Ethernet
frame is an example of the data plane.
Where data is forwarded. AP and WLAN controller.
What is an autonomous AP? Downside?
Where all 3 planes of operation existed. All encryption and decryption mechanisms and MAC layer mechanisms also operate within the autonomous AP. The distribution system service (DSS) and integration service (IS) also was built-in.
You will have to configure each AP separately.
What is a bridged virtual interface? What plane does this use?
The radio and the NIC are bridges together to receive a single IP. Physical interfaces are bridged together. The BVI is assigned an IP address that is shared by two or more physical interfaces. Access points operate as layer 2 devices; however, they still need a layer
3 address for connectivity to an IP network. The BVI is the management interface of an AP.
What is an NMS? What plane?
Network Management Server. Centrally manage the wireless network. Controller. provide a central point of management and monitoring for network devices. Configuration settings and firmware upgrades can be pushed down to all the network devices. Although centralized management is the main goal, an
NMS can have other capabilities, as well, such as RF spectrum planning and management of a WLAN. An NMS can also be used to monitor network architecture with alarms and notifications centralized and integrated into a management console. An NMS provides
robust monitoring of network infrastructure as well as monitoring of wired and wireless clients connected to the network.
Plane : Management ONLY
What is centralized WLAN architecture?
This model uses a central WLAN controller that resides in the core of the network. In the centralized WLAN architecture, autonomous APs have been replaced with controller-based access points, also known as lightweight APs or thin APs. This is a controller based model.
Describe 802.11 traffic tunneling; or how lightweight AP's send 802.11 traffic through an 802.3 medium such as ethernet?
The integration service (IS) and distribution system services (DSS) operate within the WLAN controller.
Each 802.11 frame is encapsulated entirely within the body of an IP packet. This used Generic Routing Encapsulation. Common protocol.
Although GRE is often used to encapsulate IP packets, GRE can also be used to encapsulate an 802.11 frame inside an IP tunnel. The GRE tunnel creates a virtual point-to-point link between the controller-based AP and the WLAN controller.
What is an AP Group Profile?
An AP group profile defines the configuration settings for a single AP or group of access points. Settings such as channel, transmit power, and supported data
rates are examples of settings configured in an AP group profile. An AP can belong to only one AP group profile but may support multiple WLAN profiles
What is a WLAN Profile?
Different groups of 802.11 clients can connect to a different SSID which is unique to each profile. The WLAN profile is a set of configuration parameters that are configured on the WLAN controller. WLAN logical name (SSID), WLAN security settings, VLAN assignment, and quality-of-service (QoS) parameters
What is the BSSID typically?
The BSSID is typically the MAC address of the access point’s radio. Multiple BSSIDs are usually increments of the original MAC address of the AP’s radio.
What is split MAC architecture?
With this type of WLAN architecture, some of the MAC services are handled by the WLAN controller, and some are handled by the access point. For example, the integration service and distribution system service are handled by the controller. WMM QoS methods are usually handled by the controller. Depending on the vendor, encryption and decryption of 802.11 data frames might be handled by the controller or by the AP.
In a split MAC architecture, many of the 802.11 management and control frame exchanges occur only between the client station and the controller-based access point and are not tunneled back to the WLAN controller.
What are the 2 types of data forwarding methods when using WLAN controllers?
1. Centralized Data Forwarding
2. Distributed Data Forwarding
What is Centralized Data Forwarding?
Where all data is forwarded from the AP to the WLAN
controller for processing, it may be used in many cases, especially when the WLAN controller manages encryption and decryption or applies security and QoS policies.
What is distributed data forwarding?
Where the AP performs data forwarding locally, it may be used in situations where it is advantageous to perform forwarding at the edge and to avoid
a central location in the network for all data, which may require significant processor and memory capacity at the controller.
What is the purpose of a remote office WLAN Controller?
The purpose of a remote office WLAN controller is to allow remote and branch offices to be managed from a single location. Remote WLAN controllers typically communicate with a central WLAN controller across a WAN Secure VPN tunneling capabilities are usually available between controllers across the WAN connection. Through the VPN tunnel, the central controller will download the network configuration settings to the remote WLAN controller, which will then control and manage the local APs.
What is distributed WLAN architecture?
Enable multiple APs to be organized into groups
that share control plane information between the APs to provide functions such as layer 2 roaming, layer 3 roaming, firewall policy enforcement, cooperative RF management, security, and mesh networking.
A group of access points with most of the WLAN controller intelligence and capabilities mentioned earlier in this chapter. The control plane information is shared between the APs using proprietary protocols.
Whats a big difference between controller model and distributed model?
Controller : How VLANS are implemented in network design. controller model, most user traffic is centrally forwarded to the controller from the APs. Because all the user traffic is encapsulated, a controller-based AP
typically is connected to an access port on an Ethernet switch that is tied to a single VLAN. The user VLANs are still available to the wireless users because all of the user VLANs are encapsulated in an IP tunnel
between the controller-based APs at the edge and the WLAN controller in the core.
Distributed : Each access point is therefore connected to an 802.1Q trunk port on an edge switch that supports VLAN tagging. All of the users VLANs are configured in the access layer switch. The access
points are connected to an 802.1Q trunk port of the edge switch. The user VLANS are tagged
in the 802.1Q trunk and all wireless user traffic is forwarded at the edge of the network.
What is a wireless workgroup bridge?
A wireless device that provides wireless connectivity for wired infrastructure devices that do not have radio cards. The radio card inside the WGB associates with an access point and joins the basic service set (BSS) as a client station.
What is a wireless LAN Bridge?
To provide wireless connectivity between two or more wired networks. A bridge generally supports all the same features that an autonomous access point
possesses, but the purpose is to connect wired networks and not to provide wireless. Generally
they are used outdoors to connect the wired networks inside two buildings.
What are the 2 modes of wireless LAN Bridges? What do they do?
Root and nonroot. Bridges work in a parent/child-type relationship, so think of the root bridge as the parent and the non root bridge as the child.
What is a point-to-multipoint (PtMP) bridge?
Connects multiple wired networks. The root
bridge is the central bridge, and multiple nonroot bridges connect back to the root bridge.
What are wireless LAN Mesh Access Points
Wireless mesh APs communicate with each other by using proprietary layer 2 routing protocols and create
a self-forming and self-healing wireless infrastructure (a mesh) over which edge devices can communicate
What does it mean when a WLAN network is considered self healing?
A self-forming WLAN mesh network automatically connects access points upon installation and dynamically updates routes as more clients are added. Because interference may occur, a self-healing WLAN mesh network will automatically reroute data traffic in a Wi-Fi mesh cell. Proprietary layer 2 intelligent routing protocols determine the dynamic routes based on measurement of traffic, signal strength, data rates, hops, and other parameters.
What is a virtual AP? What is its purpose?
A virtual access point solution uses multiple access points that all share a single basic service set identifier (BSSID). Because the multiple access points advertise only a single virtual MAC address (BSSID), client stations believe they are connected to only a single access point, although they may be roaming across multiple physical APs.