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Anatomy and Physiology I > Chapter 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (70):
1

Anatomy

The study of body structures

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Physiology

The study of body functions

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Inspection

Simply looking at the body's appearance

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Palpation

Feeling a structure with the hands

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Palp

Touch, feel

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Auscultation

Listening to the natural sounds made by the body

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Auscult

Listen

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Percussion

Tapping on the body, feeling for abnormal resistance, and listening to the emitted sound for signs of abnormalities

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Dissection

Carefully cutting and separating tissues to reveal their relationships

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Cadaver

A dead human body, commonly used in dissection for the purpose of training students in anatomy

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Comparative Anatomy

The study of multiple species in order to examine similarities and differences and analysis evolutionary trends

12

Exploratory Surgery

Opening the body and taking a look inside to see what was wrong and what can be done about it

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Medical Imaging

Methods of viewing inside of the body without surgery

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Radiology

The branch of medicine concerned with imaging, such as with X-rays

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Gross Anatomy

Structure that can be seen with the naked eye - whether by surface observation, radiology, or dissection

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Histology (Microscopic Anatomy)

The study of normal tissues, or groups of cells and their surrounding extracellular materials under a microscope

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Histo

Tissue

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Histopathology

The microscopic examination of tissues for signs of disease

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Cytology

The study of the structure and function individual cells

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Cyto

Cell

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Ultrastructure

Focuses on the study of structures within cells

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Comparative Physiology

The study of how biological processes vary in different animal species

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Robert Hooke

Developed and improved compound microscope, described plant cell walls

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Antony van Leeuwenhoek

Invented a simple microscope (200x) to look at fabrics

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Matthias Schleiden & Theodor Schwann

Concluded that all organisms were composed of cells, which later became the first tenet of cell theory

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Hypothesis

Educated speculation or possible answer to the question, must be (1) consistent with what is already known and (2) capable of being tested and possibly falsified by evidence

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Placebo

A substance with no significant physiological effect on the body

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Theory

An explanatory statement of set of statements derived from facts, laws, and confirmed hypothesis

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Evolution

A change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms over a period of time

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Natural Selection

Some individuals within a species have hereditary advantages over their competitors

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Selection Pressures

Natural forces that promote the reproductive success of some individuals more than others, include things like climate, predators, disease, competition, and the availability of food

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Adaptations

Features of anatomy, physiology, and behavior that have evolved in response to these selection pressures and enable the organism to cope with the challenges of its environment

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Opposable

Thumbs can cross the palm to touch the fingertips

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Bipedalism

Standing and walking on two legs

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Homo sapiens

Modern human species

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Organism

A single, complete individual

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Organ System

A group of organs with a unique collective function

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Organ

A structure composed of at least two different tissue types, has recognizable structural boundaries, and has a discrete function different from the structures around it

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Tissue

A mass of similar cells and cell products that forms a discrete region of an organ and performs a specific function

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Cell

The smallest unit of an organism that can carry out all the basic functions of life

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Organelle

A microscopic structure in a cell that carry out its individual functions

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Molecule

A particle composed of at least two atoms

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Atom

The smallest particles with unique chemical identities

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Reductionism

The theory that a large, complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components

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Metabolism

Internal chemical reactions in a living organism

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Excretion

The separation of wastes from the tissues and their elimination from the body

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Stimuli

Changes in the environment, to which organisms respond

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Differentiation

The transformation of cells with no specialized function into cells that are committed to a particular task

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Growth

An increase in size

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Homeostasis

The body's ability to detect change, activate mechanisms that oppose it, and thereby maintain relatively stable internal conditions

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Dynamic Equilibrium

Balanced change

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Negative Feedback

A process in which the body senses a change and activates mechanisms that negate or reverse it

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Receptor

A cell or organ that is specialized to detect a stimulus

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Integrating (Control) Center

A mechanism that processes change in the body

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Effector

A molecule, cell, or organ that carries out a response to a stimulus

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Positive Feedback

A self-amplifying cycle in which a physiological change leads to even greater change in the same direction, for example, contractions during childbirth and formation of a blood clot

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Charles Darwin

Best known for his theory of natural selection

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Hypo

Below

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Epi

Above

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Endo

Within, inside

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Di

Two

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Plasma Membrane

The structure that encloses a cell and controls the traffic of molecules in and out of the cell

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Cell Theory

States that all organisms are composed of cells

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Inductive Method

The process of drawing conclusions and making predictions from repeated observation

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Law of Nature

A verbal or mathematical description of a predicable natural phenomenon

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Peer Review

The method of evaluating results by the other experts in that field

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Fact

Information that can independently verified by any trained person

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Experimenter Bias

The term for the conscious or subconscious influence an experiment may have on the interpretation of their data

69

Gradient

A difference in chemical concentration, electrical charge, physical pressure, temperature, or other variable between one point and another

70

Statistical Test

Provides a statement of probability that the experimental outcome was due to random variation