Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology I > Chapter 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (29):
1

Hydrostatic Pressure

The physical force generated by a liquid, such as blood or tissue fluid

2

Active Transport

Consumes ATP and uses a carrier

3

Down a Gradient

From a region of high to low concentration

4

Up a Gradient

From a region of low to high concentration

5

Osmosis

The diffusion of water down its contraction gradient through a selectively permeable membrane

6

Simple Diffusion

The net movement of particles from a place of high concentration to a place of lower concentration

7

Tonicity

The ability of a solution to affect the fluid volume and pressure of a cell

8

Hypotonic

A lower concentration of non-permeating solutes than the intracellular fluid (ICF), cell may burst (lyse)

9

Hypertonic

A higher concentration of non-permeating solutes than the intracellular fluid (ICF), cell may shrivel (crenate)

10

Isotonic

The total concentration of the non-permeating solutes is the same as in the intracellular fluid (ICF), no change in cell

11

Carrier-mediated Transport

When a solute binds to a carrier in the plasma membrane, which then changes shape and releases the solute to the other side

12

Three Mechanisms of Carrier-mediated Transport

Facilitated diffusion, primary active transport, and secondary active transport

13

Endocytosis

Vesicular processes that bring matter into a cell

14

Exocytosis

Vesicular processes that bring matter outside a cell

15

Nucleus

The largest organelle with a double unit membrane and usually the only one clearly visible with a light microscope

16

Nuclear Envelope

The cell structure that is perforated with pores to allow material to move in and out of the nucleus

17

Chromatin

The fine threadlike matter composed of DNA and protein found inside the nucleus

18

Nucleolus

The one or more dark-staining masses in the nucleus where ribosomes are produced

19

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

An organelle with an extensive system of cytoplasmic tubules classified as rough or smooth

20

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

ER is comprised of parallel cisternae that is covered with ribosomes

21

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

ER is comprised of tubular cisternae that is not covered with ribosomes, functions to synthesize lipids

22

Ribosomes

An organelle that is a small granule of RNA and protein that provide a site for protein synthesis

23

Golgi Complex

The pancake-like organelle which are a small system of cisternae that synthesize carbohydrates and put the finishing touches on protein and glycoprotein synthesis, "the postal service"

24

Secretory Vesicles

The structures in which the Golgi complex packages cellular products that will be exported from the cell

25

Lysosome

An organelle that contains a mixture of enzymes that function in disgusting foreign matter, pathogens, and expired organelles, "the garbage men"

26

Peroxisome

An organelle that contains enzymes needed to neutralize free radicals, detoxify alcohol, other drugs, and blood-borne toxins

27

Proteasomes

An organelle that is used for the disposal of nonfunctional proteins

28

Mitochondrion

A two cellular organelle with a double unit membrane, "the power house"

29

Centriole

A short cylindrical assembly of microtubules arranged in nine groups of three