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1

Kinesiology

the study of the art and science of human movement, can be studied qualitatively or quantitatively

2

Quantitative

distance, force, time, joint angles, etc.; considered to be be objective because they are made with mechanical instruments, which require minimal judgement on the part of the investigator and reduce investigator bias to a minimum

3

Qualitative

(Subjetive); because they require human judgement, and are used to determine the quality of a performance (ex: a gymnastics routine, golf swing, patients level of pain)

4

Measurement

the process of comparing a value to a standard

5

Data

the result of measurement

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Statistics

a mathematical technique by which data are organized, treated, and presented for interpretation and evaluation.

7

Evaluation

the philosophical process of determining the worth of the data

8

Reproducible

the data from the measurement, a second measurement under the same conditions should produce the same result as the first measurement

9

Reliability

(the consistency of the data); usually determined by the test–retest method, where the first measure is compared with a second or third measure on the same subjects under the same conditions

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Validity

refers to the soundness (appropriateness) of the test in measuring what it is designed to measure; can be determined via logical analysis of the measurement procedures, or via comparison to another test already known to be valid

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Objectivity

means that the data are collected without bias by the investigator; sometimes referred to as inter-rater reliability

12

Bias

can be detected by comparing an investigators scores to those of an expert or panel of experts

13

Measurement involves four steps:

1. The object to be measured is identified and defined.
2. The standard with which the measured object will be compared is identified and defined.
3. The object is compared with the standard.
4. A quantitative statement is made of the relationship of the object to the standard.

14

milli

1/1,000

15

centi

1/100

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deci

1/10

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zero

0

18

deca

10

19

hecto

100

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kilo

1,000

21

mega

1,000,000

22

giga

1,000,000,000

23

Variable

a characteristic of a person, place, or object that can assume more than one value; (a person may perform differently when measured on the same variable more than once)

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Constant

a characteristic that can assume only one value (never changes so we only need to measure it once)

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Continuous Variable

theoretically can assume any value (distance, force, time, etc.); can be measures as short as a millionth of a cm or as a light-year

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Discrete Variable

limited to certain numbers, usually whole numbers or integers (we can't have a fraction of a person)

27

Nominal Scales

subjects are grouped into mutually exclusive categories without qualitative differentiation between the categories; data grouped this way are sometimes called frequency data because the scale indicates the number of times an event happens (size of the number doesn't indicate an amount but instead indicates category assignment)

28

Ordinal scale (rank-order scale)

gives quantitative order to the variables but does not indicate how much better one score is than another. (differences between the positions may be unequal) Medals, nothing saying how much better 1st is than 2nd or 3rd

29

Interval Scale

has equal units, or intervals, of measurement—that is, the same distance exists between each division of the scale—but has no absolute zero point. (since 0 doesn't indicate the absence of value, one point is not 2 or 3x's larger) temp bc zero isn't an absence of heat

30

ratio scale

(most complete scale of measurement); based
on order, has equal distance between scale points, and uses zero to represent the absence of value. All units are equidistant from each other, and proportional, or ratio, comparisons are appropriate (distance, force, or time-negative scores are impossible)