Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

Anesthesia Exam 1 > Chapter 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (29)
Loading flashcards...
1

What were the earliest methods of pain reduction?

-Religious techniques
-Plants and herbs
-Use of narcotics
-Self-practice
-Ethical debate
-Suitability

2

What did William Clarke do?

Administered ether via a towel to a women having her teeth extracted.

3

What did Dr. Horace Wells do?

He was the first to try nitrous oxide for dental pain control.

4

What did Dr. Henry Beecher do?

During WWII, Beecher noticed that clinical pain was a physical sensation and a cognitive and emotional reaction, thus changing the direction of pain control research.

5

What is Niemann and Stefano known for?

isolating cocaine from coca leaves in the 1860s

6

What are the benefits of anesthesia in a dental hygiene setting?

-Blocks travel of pain signal to brain
-Time management
-Hemostasis

7

Vasoconstrictors do what?

Reduce bleeding.

8

To monitor nitrous oxide/oxygen sedation means

the dental hygienist may not turn on the nitrous oxide; however, her or she may change the settings as needed during the dental hygiene appt.

9

To administer nitrous oxide/oxygen sedation means

The dental hygienist may turn in the inhalation equipment.

10

What is pain perception?

Neurologic experience of pain

11

What is pain threshold?

Point at which a sensation starts to be painful and discomfort results.

12

What is pain reaction?

Personal interpretation and responses to the pain message.

13

Pain reaction threshold can be affected by what?

-Emotional state
-Fatigue and stress
-Age
-Cultural characteristics
-Fear and apprehension

14

Human needs paradigm

-Free from fear and stress
-Freedom from pain

15

Free from fear and stress includes

-Need to feel safe
-Need to be free from emotional discomfort in the oral health care environment
-Need to receive appreciation, attention, and respect from others.

16

50-85% patients report what?

Dental anxiety

17

Stress reduction principles

-Look for pysical signs of anxiousness: Use questioning and use persistent listening
-Complete health history
-vital signs
-shorter appts
-best time of day
-Continue care after patient leaves office
-Attitude and demeanor
-Use of anesthesia, as needed, to prevent fear associated with pain.

18

Local anesthesia creates what?

A numbing feeling, which eliminates the feeling of sensation in a specific area without loss of consciousness.

19

What was discovered in 1860s?

Cocaine

20

What was the first local anesthetic?

COCAINE

21

When was cocaine first used as a local anesthetic?

1884

22

Procaine was discovered in

1904

23

Lidocaine was discovered in

1943

24

Bupivacaine was discovered in

1957

25

halothane is what?

An inhalation drug

26

Lidocaine is a what?

Amide

27

Mepivacaine was discovered in

1957

28

Prilocaine was discovered in

1959

29

Carticaine

-Discovered in 1969
-Name changed to articaine in 1984
-Became available in the USA in 2000