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Flashcards in Chapter 1 and 2 Deck (56):


Study of distribution and abundance of organisms/interactions to determine distribution and relationship bt. organisms. and transformation



Totality of all life interacting with physical environment at scale of planet. Biggest umbrella



Both community of organisms and physical environment



All of species population in a defined location



Groups of individual organisms of same species in a defined location


natural experiments

unplanned, take advantage of situation


Natural Selection

Darwin and Wallace- 4 established rules:
1) Individuals form a population of a species aren't identical
2) some variation between individuals is heritable
3) In each gen, individuals are only a subset of those that might have arrived there from prev. generation
4) those that contribute most (children) have greatest influence on heritable characteristics in following generations


Reciprocal Transplant Experiments

Comparing performance at home vs in foreign environment


Ecological speciation

formation of new species- divergent selection and reproductive isolation


Allopatric Phase

Speciation where subpopulations are in different places


Sympatric Phase

Speciation where subpopulations are in same place


Parallel Evolution

Separated, evolved in different places but have similar set of potentials and constrainsts- probably wont mate



ELA's original reason for establishment: Excess growth of algae and cyanobacteria, result of too much nutrients


Mathematical Models in Ecology

one of 3 ecological evidences. Good for exploring situations that we don't have and to summarize our knowledge and predictions. Not real data, should be cautious. it doesn't have to be perfect representation.



Evolution, wrote the Beagle



Amateur naturalist, read Darwin's Beagle and wrote to him


Malthus' Population Essay

Wrote about how population will increase with no limit and not enough resources for everyone. Didn't take into account new technology so it hasn't happened



Production of offspring sharing characteristics of both parents


Industrial Melanism

Black/dark colored species dominate due to the industrial revolution. ie. Peppered moths


Ecological phenomena can occur at a range of

Biological, spatial, and temporal scales


Generally, most studies will evaluate a hypothesis based on whether the p-value is:

p < 0.5


_____ are functioning groups of individual organisms of the same species in a defined location.



The principal sources and approaches used to gather ecological evidence include ______. (3 ecological evidences)

Observations, Experiments, Mathematical models


Which field of ecology studies trends and fluctuations in the number of individuals of a particular species at a particular time and place as a result of birth and death rates and interactions between predators and prey?

Population Ecology


One researcher studies plant cells and how these cells and plants respond to increased concentrations of carbon dioxide. Another researcher studies how multiple species interact and what affects their abundances and distributions. A different researcher studies a species’ DNA and what changes have occurred between populations as a result of evolution. What do these researchers all have in common?

They all study one of the many levels of biology with some application to ecology


A researcher is studying how the physiology of individual single-celled organisms of the same species are affected by water temperature. This is an example of studying ecology at what level?

Organismal Level, NOT population


You design an experiment to test how ultraviolet radiation effects the development of a species of frog tadpoles. You set up your experiment so that there are 50 replicates, instead of only 10. Why is it a good idea to have so many replicates?

The more replicates you have the greater the likelihood of obtaining accurate results.


Say you go and measure the diameter of trees in old growth forests throughout 30 plots of land in Argentina. You want to know if tree size differs between sites. This is an example of what type of study?

Manipulative field study

Comparative laboratory study

Comparative field observation study

None of the above

Comparative field observation study


You compile a model to test how dissolved carbon dioxide levels are affecting calcium deposition in the Pacific Ocean as a result of climate change. Your model indicates that many species relying on carbonate for shell deposition will not be able to survive due to the projected future changes in dissolved carbon dioxide levels as a result of climate change. What is the likely conclusion to draw from this result?

Your model is only a prediction and can be applied cautiously to help land managers and other researchers


When one evaluates case studies in ecology, it is important to keep in mind:

Phenomenon occur at a variety of scales

Data and evidence can come from a variety of sources

Scientific evidence is necessary and statistics should be relied upon

All of the above

All of the above


Which of the following is NOT important to remember when collecting data?

Estimate accurately and without bias

Fabricate data if necessary

Be as precise as possible

Effectively use the time, money and human effort that has been invested

Fabricate data if necessary


Ecologists may use which of these approaches to answer research questions?

Mathematical models

Controlled laboratory experiments

Manipulative field experiments

Observational data

All: Mathematical models, Controlled laboratory experiments, Manipulative field experiments, Observational data


types of ecological evidence

Observations, Experiments, Mathematical Models


Manipulative field experiment

manipulating the conditions in the hypothesis


Comparative field experiment

comparing the data from different sites as an experiment


Peppered moths (Biston betularia) vary in color from place to place. Is the variation within these populations heritable?

Yes, this trait is heritable and is selected for or against depending on the environment


Which scientist devised an orderly system for naming different organisms?

Carl Linnaeus


What type of evolution is described as the process whereby organisms that do not share a recent common ancestor evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches?

Convergent evolution


Convergent Evolution

organism that DON'T share similar ancestor but evolve similar traits bc of similar environments and niches


Changes in temperature in the North Sea over the past million years caused changes in sea level that:

Allowed for dispersal of both plants and animals between land masses


Which two scientists derived the theory of evolution by means of natural selection?

Wallace and Darwin


Which term refers to a trait that has a genetic basis and is capable of being passed down to subsequent generations?



Four criteria/ theories for evolution are

Uniqueness in trait, Heritability, Fitness, Many off springs = more chances at survival



one affects another species and vise versa. "evolutionary arms race"- helping each other one up another


Two populations of deer are found in a mountainous habitat. These two populations look very similar. Also, there is observed mating between them that results in viable offspring. Do you think that these two populations have diverged into two species?

No, because there is observed mating between them that results in viable offspring


A male bullfrog (Rana catesbeianus) is found to mate with more females and produce more offspring than any other male in a pond being studied. What would you say about this bullfrog’s fitness?

This males fitness is the highest of all other males sampled in the pond


You learn that many plants are chemically defended and that herbivorous predators have developed resistance to many of these plant defenses. However, it appears that plants have responded to herbivore resistance by producing more chemical defenses, which in turn deters some herbivores. Evidently, this process has occurred many times over the last millions of years. This is an example of:



You take a research trip to Australia and observe that the wombat appears to be a similar looking species to a ground hog you have studied in North America. These two species have evolved in separate, but climatically similar environments, and they have developed closely corresponding adaptive features. This is a clear example of:

Parallel Evolution


A seismic event occurs, splitting a population of wolves in two. One half of the population is now exposed to a very mountainous and rocky habitat with much snow, while the other half of the population is left to live in a wooded forest habitat. After thousands of generations, another seismic event occurs and the population of wolves is now able to be one again. However, they will no longer mate with one another. This is an example of:

Allopatric Speciation


A plant species is found on the mainland of Africa and a migratory bird species feeds on its seeds. These birds arrive on an island, defecate, and leave the seeds on this island. Let us assume the seeds will germinate. Over evolutionary time, what may become of these plants on the island?

They may evolve into endemic species since they are isolated from individuals of the original species on the mainland


The theory of evolution by means of natural selection relies on what established assertions?

Variation is heritable
There is differential reproductive success
Individuals of a population of species are not identical


Since the peak of the last glaciation, global temperatures have risen by about 8 degrees Celsius. Pollen records indicate:

All flora have responded the same by expanding their range

Some tree species have retreated their range

Some tree species have expanded their range

That trees were not expanding or contracting their range

Some tree species have retreated their range

Some tree species have expanded their range


The change, over time, in the heritable characteristics of a population of species is known as _______?



The term _______ refers to the genetic contribution (often times measured as number of offspring) that an individual contributes to the next generation.




Natural selection



Speciation is ________.

A gradual process of forming a new species that happens over evolutionary time


what does mating show?

that the species are still similar enough to be considered 1 species