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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (90):
1

Greenhouse Gases

CO2, CH4, O3, Nitrous Oxide, fill in holes in infared spectrum

2

Variations on climate driven by

-Sunlight intensity changes
-Volcanic eruptions
-Changes in tilt of earth
-Changes in ocean circulation
-Changes in Greenhouse gases

3

Svante Arrhenius

Originator of physical chemistry, first published book on greenhouse gases

4

Hadley Cell

Hot air at equator moves up, moves N or S, cools as it moves, circulates back to ground and back to equator

5

Polar Cells

Driven by cold air at the poles

6

Adiabatic cooling

As air rises in atmosphere, cools bc less pressure (Universal gas law), creates rain

7

Coriolis Effect

Winds move to the right in N hemisphere and left in S hemisphere

8

Convergent Evolution

Biomes are results of climate, will change gradually due to climate change

9

Short growing season

Tundra

10

Polar air masses year round

Tundra

11

Cold and dry climate, long daylight in the summer

Tundra

12

Frozen/wet soil, permafrost( frozen soil). Slow soil decomposition, organic rich soil

Tundra

13

Global warming is dangerous

Tundra

14

Polar air pass in winter, some temperate air in summer

Boreal forest

15

Warmer summers than tundra, more rain

Boreal forest

16

Evergreens, low diversity in vegetation

Boreal forest

17

Organic rich soil, frozen

Boreal forest

18

Fire and insects are disturbances

Boreal forest

19

Dry summers

Evergreen (Temperate forest)

20

Vegetation more diverse than boreal

Evergreen (Temperate forest)

21

infrequent catastrophic or frequent noncatastrophic fire are disturbances

Evergreen (Temperate forest)

22

need summer rainfall

Deciduous (temperate foresta0

23

Disturbances include windfall and fire

Deciduous (temperate forest)

24

Ithaca's biome

Temperate forest

25

Found in continental interiors

Temperate grassland

26

rain mountain rain shadows

Temperate grassland

27

vegetation mostly grass

temperate grassland

28

cold winters, wet summers

temperate grassland

29

soil is nutrient rich and fetile

Temperate grassland

30

fires are disturbances

temperate grassland

31

many replaced by agriculture bc soil is good

temperate grasslnad

32

Climate is dry and has occasional flashflood

Desert

33

Has drought adaptations (CAM photosyns, ephemerals, deep roots)

Desert

34

thin and little organic matter soil, "islands of fertility" under shrubs

Desert

35

seasonal climate

savannah and tropical seasonal forest

36

seasonal rain, summer rain

Savanna and tropical seasonal forest

37

vegetation is tree mixed with grass

savanna and tropical seasonal forest

38

fire and large herbivores are disturbances

savanna and tropical seasonal forest

39

constant sun, lots of rain

tropical rain forest

40

broad leaved evergreens, very diverse

tropical rain forest

41

soil has poor nutrients, acidic, highly leached

tropical rain forest

42

disturbances include humans

tropical rain forest

43

primary producer, #1 in rate of photosynthesis

tropical rain forest

44

Rate of primary production in ocean biomes is slower or faster than terrestrial?

slower

45

Total photosynthesis in ocean biomes is slower or faster than terrestrial?

similar

46

little organic matter

deep ocean

47

"rain of detritus"

organic material sinking to deep ocean

48

? has no photosynthesis, replaced by ?

Deep ocean has hot vents that put out chemical energy that is harvested by autotrophic bacteria to produce organic matter

49

slow decomposition ie grilled cheese

deep ocean

50

directions for north and south gyres

Clockwise for northern hemisphere, counterclockwise for southern hemisphere

51

lowest rate of primary production

subtropical gyres

52

highest biodiversity- why?

subtropical gyres, because of low disturbances, and low nutrients so specialization

53

largest biome after deep ocean

subtropical gyres

54

deepest light penetration

subtropical gyres

55

why low photosythesis in subtropical gyres?

bc stratification keeps nutrients in deep ocean but photosynthesis is in shallow

56

result of interactions with prevailing winds

upwelling ecosystems

57

brings cold and deep water to surface

UPwelling ecosystems

58

high rate of productivity (why)

upwelling systems, brings nutrients in deep ocean onto top, high photosynthesis

59

small area of ocean

upwelling systems

60

low diversity

upwelling systems

61

large phytoplankton

upwelling system, estuaries

62

small photoplankton

subtropical gyres

63

high surface to volume ratio thus long food chain (inefficient)

subtropical gyres

64

low surface to volume ration thus short food chain thus efficient

upwelling ecosystems, estuaries

65

high nutrients from land/deep ocean, denser than freshwater bc higher salt concentration

estuaries (different from upwelling bc nutrient from land too)

66

low light penetration, but shallow, so sufficient light

estuaries

67

high productivity

estuaries (shallow)

68

low diversity

estuaries

69

productive fisheries

upwelling ecosystems, estuaries

70

The change in seasons on Earth is due to:

Changes to the tilt of Earth’s axis relative to the sun during an annual rotation.

71

What atmospheric effect is responsible for the severe desert conditions found in Death Valley California?

A rain shadow.

72

When light from the sun hits Earth _____________, the intensity is greater relative to _______________.

at a 90 degree angle, an oblique or an acute angle

73

If you were standing in the tropics, which direction would the prevailing winds blow?

from east

74

Heated air at the equator:

rises and cools and moves away from the equator (hadley cell)

75

Which term describes the number of species found in a particular area?

Species richness

76

What term describes the total amount of photosynthesis per area for a defined length of time?

primary production

77

Which biome would you expect to have the greatest amount of biodiversity?

tropical rain forest

78

Which statement is most accurate regarding species richness in a tropical rainforest?

Species richness is dramatically greater than all other biomes.

79

Y/N: Should we expect similar characteristics to evolve in species that are found in regions of the world where environmental conditions are similar?

Yes

80

Biodiversity is great at deep sea hot vents. One type of organism you would expect to see at these vents is:

A chemo-autotroph

81

In upwelling systems….

Nutrient rich deep open waters move upward

82

Which of the following statements concerning estuaries is true?

Estuaries have a higher salt concentration than fresh water systems

83

T/F Light penetration is higher in the open ocean than in costal waters.

True. (light penetration is high in subtropic gyres, not as high in upwelling, lowest in estuaries)

84

Marine biomass is less or more than terrestrial

less

85

Large masses of semi-isolated surface water surrounded by a circular current of water moving clockwise would be which of the following?

Gyres in the northern hemisphere

86

What is one possible explanation of why biodiversity is very high in subtropical gyres?

The low-nutrient status within a gyre has led to specialized adaptations

87

Rain shadow

Mountain hit by prevailing winds, air masses rise and then cool, creating dry climates ie temperate grasslands and death valley

88

Prevailing winds directions

blows from east in tropics and polar regions// blows from west in temperate latitudes

89

intertidal

exposed during low tide and submerged during high tide, small algae, kelp

90

littoral

begins at low tide, fully submerged, full light penetration, primary producers attached to the bottom