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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (38):
1

Conditions

Physicochemical features of environment like temp, pH, salinity. Conditions affect organisms and vise versa

2

Resources

Consumed by organisms

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Response curves

Highest performance=Reproduction, Middle= Individual Growth, Low=Individual Survival, Lowest=Death. might not be at peak performance bc competition of other animals might kill.

4

ectoderm

rely on external heat to determine pace of metabolism

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endotherm

regulate body temperature by producing heat within body

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photoinhibition

rate of fixation of carbon decreases with increasing radiation intensity

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C3 Pathway

first production of 3 carbon atoms, wastes water and reaches max rate of photosynthesis too quickly

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C4 Pathway

First production of 4 carbon sugar, more efficient with water and carbon, separate things spatially

9

Heterotrophs

Uses organic compound as food, unpacks and consumes the organic compounds formed by autotrophs. 1) Decomposers 2) Parasites 3) Predators 4) Grazers

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Thermophiles

most organisms are scared of high temps except thermophiles. ie. fungi, bacteria and archaea.

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Photoperiod

length of the period of daylight within a daily cycle. as photoperiod shortens (approaches winter),

12

Diapause

basically hybernation

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acclimatization

conditions may trigger the same or more extreme condition. ex: Exposure to cold temp may cause inc rate of metabolism at the temp thus tolerate even colder temps. over one lifetime

14

Acidophiles

thrive in environments that are highly acidic

15

CAM photosynthesis

Better than C4, doesn't waste water. Opens stomata at night. Cactus often use this, temporal separation

16

Rubisco

An enzyme that catalyzes reaction of RuBP with CO2 to form sugars with 3 carbons. Then calvin cycle

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Resources for photosynthesis

Light, water, CO2, Nutrients

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Calvin Cycle

Second stage of dark reaction photosynthesis. After forming sugar with 3 C, calvin cycle forms sugar with 6 C (Glucose)

19

______ is used by plants to time dormancy and flowering.

Photoperiod

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A _________ is an organism that relies on external sources of heat to determine the pace of their metabolism.

Ectotherm

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Species of bacteria and archaea that can live at temperatures of 100 degrees Celsius are known as ________?

Thermophiles

22

Temperature, humidity, amount of precipitation, and water pH are examples of __________.

Physiochemical features of the environment known as conditions

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Organisms will consume _______ during the course of their growth and reproduction

Environmental resources

24

Conditions are physiochemical features of the environment, such as:

Temperature, Humidity, Salinity

25

Organisms whose major resources are photosynthetic radiation, water, nutrients, and carbon dioxide are known as ________.

Autotrophs

26

Which is NOT a type of heterotroph?

Bacteria that feed on hydrogen sulfide

Human that feeds on plant material

Fungi

A flea

Bacteria that feeds on hydrogen sulfide. (bc heterotrophs feed on carbon compounds)

27

Autotroph

also known as Primary Producer, assemble CO2, H20, nutrients into complex molecules then cells then whole organisms. These packages are food sources for heterotrophs

28

T/F Plants face a trade-off between photosynthesis and water loss.

True

29

Which type of organism feeds on already dead material?

Decomposer

30

T/F C4 photosynthesis is an important photosynthetic pathway for plants in environments with consistently high precipitation.

False

31

If a plant is prevented from transpiring, what do you expect the outcome will be?

The plant will likely become overheated.

32

You learn that an organism is using abiotic environmental resources to assemble carbohydrates and proteins, and then forming them into tissues and organs. This organism is likely a:

Autotroph

33

What is the equation for photosynthesis?

6CO2 + 6H20 -> C6H12O6 + 6O2

34

photorespiration

decrease efficiency of photosynthesis, C4 evolved bc of this. result of too much O2 or too little CO2

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waste product of herbivores

carbon rich bc eat plants which have high C:N ratios

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waste prducts of animals

nitrogen rich bc eat animals/protein

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things that eat algae

richer in nitrogen bc things that eat algae are on a more protein diet than herbivores

38

the great conveyor belt

helps to intake large amounts of CO2, distributes heat, sinks at N Atlantic ocean, dense. slowing down because of greenland ice melting into arctic ocean