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1

what is psychology?

the study of behaviour and mental processes

2

what are mental processes?

how the brain functions when engaged

3

what is behaviour?

how you react in response to stimuli

4

what are the 4 main purposes of studies?

description, explanation, control, prediction

5

what is description?

describes WHAT is occurring

6

what is explanation?

WHY something is happening

7

what is prediction?

WHEN something will happen

8

what is control?

limiting/increasing behaviours or mental processes

9

what influences the goals in a study?

the person- mental processes
the brain- structure + activity
the group- society/environment

10

how did psychology get its start?

people started wondering about human nature and experiences

11

who was Hippocrates and what was his main idea?

4 humours - define personality, character and health
yellow bile
black bile
blood
phlegm

12

Socrates, Pluto and Aristotle ideas

how the mind works and how it relates to the body
promoted testable investigations
sensations, dreams, sleep, learning

13

What was Bacon's main idea?

Empiricism- all knowledge is from experience,
the scientific method, building theories

14

Descartes' main idea?

the mind is distinct from the body, everything is a science

15

Helmholtz main idea?

thoughts and movement are linked,
measured speed of nerves

16

Why is Wundt important?

He is considered the founder of psychology
-started making observations and used the experimental method
-Believes everything can be reduced to basic elements

17

What are the 2 schools of thought?

structuralism
functionalism

18

what is structuralism? focus? downfalls?

experience can be reduced to basic elements, look at the parts that make up a whole, focused on introspection - simple thoughts expand to more complex ideas
downfalls- not objective, stimuli is constant, experience changes among and within people

19

what is functionalism?

examine the purpose of mental processes and how they function
influenced by Darwin and Galton, natural selection and inheritance of mental abilities
ever-changing stream of thoughts, how we adapt and survive

20

what is the Gestalt theory?

against structuralism
we have inborn tendencies, impose structure on what we see
Looked at the whole picture, not just parts of it

21

what are the 2 types of research? describe each

basic research- explore general scientific understanding
applied research- used to solve practical problems

22

What was Wundt's main goal?

he wanted to define/explain the structure of conscious experience

23

2 methods of study

descriptive and experimental

24

what are the types of descriptive methods, what are their pros and cons

naturalistic- observe from afar, watch people in their natural environment,
con- wait for it to happen
laboratory, a little bit of control, still watch natural functions
con- observer bias
case study- watch one person, provides unique observations, can't generalize findings

25

what are pros and cons of the experimental method?

pro-can establish cause and effect
limitation- selection bias
con- placebo effect, experimenter bias

26

what is a theory?

provides an explanation for a study

27

define hypothesis

a prediction of the results

28

independent vs dependent

in- experimenter manipulates
dependent- one you measure

29

experimental vs. control groups

experimental- gets treatment, control does not

30

extraneous variable

third variable that effects outcome of experiment