Flashcards in Chapter 1 and 2 Deck (49)
what is psychology?
the study of behaviour and mental processes
what are mental processes?
how the brain functions when engaged
what is behaviour?
how you react in response to stimuli
what are the 4 main purposes of studies?
description, explanation, control, prediction
what is description?
describes WHAT is occurring
what is explanation?
WHY something is happening
what is prediction?
WHEN something will happen
what is control?
limiting/increasing behaviours or mental processes
what influences the goals in a study?
the person- mental processes
the brain- structure + activity
the group- society/environment
how did psychology get its start?
people started wondering about human nature and experiences
who was Hippocrates and what was his main idea?
4 humours - define personality, character and health
Socrates, Pluto and Aristotle ideas
how the mind works and how it relates to the body
promoted testable investigations
sensations, dreams, sleep, learning
What was Bacon's main idea?
Empiricism- all knowledge is from experience,
the scientific method, building theories
Descartes' main idea?
the mind is distinct from the body, everything is a science
Helmholtz main idea?
thoughts and movement are linked,
measured speed of nerves
Why is Wundt important?
He is considered the founder of psychology
-started making observations and used the experimental method
-Believes everything can be reduced to basic elements
What are the 2 schools of thought?
what is structuralism? focus? downfalls?
experience can be reduced to basic elements, look at the parts that make up a whole, focused on introspection - simple thoughts expand to more complex ideas
downfalls- not objective, stimuli is constant, experience changes among and within people
what is functionalism?
examine the purpose of mental processes and how they function
influenced by Darwin and Galton, natural selection and inheritance of mental abilities
ever-changing stream of thoughts, how we adapt and survive
what is the Gestalt theory?
we have inborn tendencies, impose structure on what we see
Looked at the whole picture, not just parts of it
what are the 2 types of research? describe each
basic research- explore general scientific understanding
applied research- used to solve practical problems
What was Wundt's main goal?
he wanted to define/explain the structure of conscious experience
2 methods of study
descriptive and experimental
what are the types of descriptive methods, what are their pros and cons
naturalistic- observe from afar, watch people in their natural environment,
con- wait for it to happen
laboratory, a little bit of control, still watch natural functions
con- observer bias
case study- watch one person, provides unique observations, can't generalize findings
what are pros and cons of the experimental method?
pro-can establish cause and effect
limitation- selection bias
con- placebo effect, experimenter bias
what is a theory?
provides an explanation for a study
a prediction of the results
independent vs dependent
in- experimenter manipulates
dependent- one you measure
experimental vs. control groups
experimental- gets treatment, control does not