Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (21)
what are the key methods scientists used to learn about the brain?
examine autopsy tissue, test patients with damaged brains, record electrical brain activity through electrodes, animal studies
what is neuroscience?
the study of the brain and nervous system
what is neuroimaging?
a technique that studies brain activity and structure by obtaining visual images in awake humans
pros vs cons
examining autopsy tissue
p- allows scientists to study structure
c-cant see how systems worked when alive and in use
what is a neuropsychologist?
scientists who specialize in studying the brain
pros (1) and cons (4)
testing patients with brain damage
c- cannot make statements about cause and effect, could be an undetectable issue in another part of the brain, brain may undergo reorganization over time, pathway could be damaged instead
p- localized brain damage helps infer what a particular part of the brain did
electroencephalograms, brain activity recorded through electrodes attached to the scalp, noninvasive
What are EEG's used for?
a way to measure or learn about the brain when performing certain tasks
Pros and cons
make predictions about functional effects of brain injuries and identify types of seizure disorders
only provide a summary of surface activity which led to ERP
what is ERP?
sensory, cognitive or motor activities taking place and then focus on wave patterns at time of event and following the stimulus
pros and cons
good at knowing when events take place but
not ideal for identifying where in the brain the activity takes place
studies on animal nervous systems
pro- gives us the ability to study areas of the brain and functions
targeting specific brain areas for destruction and observing effects on behaviour
transcranial magnetic stimulation
delivers an electromagnetic pulse to targeted brain area, to disrupt localized brain activity,
types of neuroimaging
CAT or CT, MRI and DTI
CAT or CT
computerized (or computed) axial tomography
produce clear, detailed, 2 D x-ray images
magnetic resonance imaging
uses string magnets, produce much clearer images than CT and doesn't use radiation
why do we still use CT scans?
better at detecting problems, CT scans are better with cancer where MRI's are better with tendons and ligaments, spinal cord or brain
Ct's are faster and cost less
MRI's cant be used with metal in the body
diffusion tensor imaging
orientation and integrity of white matter
helpful with concussions
functional vs structural
functional- examines the functions during specific behaviours
structural- examines the structure of the brain