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1

what are the key methods scientists used to learn about the brain?

examine autopsy tissue, test patients with damaged brains, record electrical brain activity through electrodes, animal studies

2

what is neuroscience?

the study of the brain and nervous system

3

what is neuroimaging?

a technique that studies brain activity and structure by obtaining visual images in awake humans

4

pros vs cons
examining autopsy tissue

p- allows scientists to study structure
c-cant see how systems worked when alive and in use

5

what is a neuropsychologist?

scientists who specialize in studying the brain

6

pros (1) and cons (4)
testing patients with brain damage

c- cannot make statements about cause and effect, could be an undetectable issue in another part of the brain, brain may undergo reorganization over time, pathway could be damaged instead
p- localized brain damage helps infer what a particular part of the brain did

7

EEG's

electroencephalograms, brain activity recorded through electrodes attached to the scalp, noninvasive

8

What are EEG's used for?

a way to measure or learn about the brain when performing certain tasks

9

Pros and cons
EEG's

make predictions about functional effects of brain injuries and identify types of seizure disorders
- con
only provide a summary of surface activity which led to ERP

10

what is ERP?

event-related potentials
-improved EEG's
sensory, cognitive or motor activities taking place and then focus on wave patterns at time of event and following the stimulus

11

pros and cons
ERP

good at knowing when events take place but

not ideal for identifying where in the brain the activity takes place

12

animal studies

studies on animal nervous systems
pro- gives us the ability to study areas of the brain and functions

13

lesioning

targeting specific brain areas for destruction and observing effects on behaviour

14

TMS

transcranial magnetic stimulation
delivers an electromagnetic pulse to targeted brain area, to disrupt localized brain activity,

15

types of neuroimaging

CAT or CT, MRI and DTI

16

CAT or CT

computerized (or computed) axial tomography
produce clear, detailed, 2 D x-ray images

17

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging
uses string magnets, produce much clearer images than CT and doesn't use radiation

18

why do we still use CT scans?

better at detecting problems, CT scans are better with cancer where MRI's are better with tendons and ligaments, spinal cord or brain
Ct's are faster and cost less
MRI's cant be used with metal in the body

19

DTI

diffusion tensor imaging
orientation and integrity of white matter
helpful with concussions

20

functional vs structural

functional- examines the functions during specific behaviours

structural- examines the structure of the brain

21

PET

positron emission tomography
a harmless radioactive substance is injected into blood and measured through radioactivity, active areas have more blood flow