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Flashcards in Chapter 1 and Acid Test Deck (22):
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Name several tools used to observe the ocean

a. Remote sensing- satellite study ocean surface
b. Sonar- map seafloor depth and formations
c. Scuba- study marine environment at deep depths
d. Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs)- direct exploration of marine environment
e. Crittercam- cameras on top of animals to record their natural life.
f. Research vessels- gives biologists months to explore under water undisturbed.

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5. What is SONAR? ROVs?

? ROVs are remotely operated vehicles used to explore the marine environment when scuba isn’t an option. SONAR Sound Navigation and Ranging, detects underwater echos.

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6. In the video, the “Teacher’s Pet” used losing her ___ as an example to illustrate the scientific method.

Cell Phone

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7. What are the steps of the scientific method?

a. Observation
b. Research
c. Hypothesis
d. Experiment
e. Conclusion
f. Share results

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8. What is a hypothesis? It is impossible to “prove” a hypothesis. Why? Use the fish gill example to explain.

a. A hypothesis is a prediction of what you believe will occur. It is impossible to ‘prove’ a hypothesis for you can only disprove one. The point of the hypothesis is to see if said prediction will occur or not. The video said that if the gummy bears were left in a certain amount of water for 24 hours their size would increase. By putting the gummy bears into the water they are putting their hypothesis to the test.

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9. Say you are a scientist that wants to find out how fast lobsters grow at different environmental variables. Which experiment would be more precise and more likely to lead you to a conclusion? Why?

a) 2 different groups of lobsters grown at different temperatures “A” would be the correct answer because you are keeping one variable controlled while the other is being changed, so you can see specifically how each temperature effects the lobsters.
(b) 2 different groups of lobsters grown at different temperatures and different salinities

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10. What is a scientific theory?

What is the difference between a scientific theory and an “every day” theory? A scientific theory is a hypothesis that has been tested repetitively over time by many people and has not been disproven. An everyday theory is just what people suspect to be true.

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11. What is ocean acidification?

The decrease of the pH of the ocean (decrease Ph= more acidic)

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12. What molecule causes ocean acidification? What molecule is taken away from certain organisms that need it? (This is the only chemistry part of ocean acidification I expect you to know)

a. Excessive CO2 (carbon dioxide) is being absorbed into the ocean, the CO3^-2 is taken away from the organisms because they can’t extract it from bicarbonate so they can’t grow a shell.

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13. What organisms will be directly affected by ocean acidification? What organisms will be indirectly affected by it?

a. Shrimp, clams, oysters, lobsters, all kinds of coral will be directly affected.
b. Everyone else will be indirectly affected. Sharks, fish, penguin, whales, dolphins, even us as people.

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14. Ultimately, what will likely happen if ocean acidification continues to occur?

a. Ultimate seashells could start to dissolve complete.

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15. The ocean is important because it provides us with ____, protects our coastline from __, regulates _________, and provides us with most of our _____.

1)food, recreation, and transportation
2)storms
3)climate
4)oxygen

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16. Ocean acidification is referred to as our other ______ problem. The first is _______.

1)carbon
2)global warming

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17. ____ is a byproduct of burning fossil fuels.

1)carbon dioxide

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18. The ocean absorbs _____% of the carbon in the atmosphere.

1)25

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19. If we continue to pollute as we are, the acidity of the ocean is predicted to ________ by the end of the century.

1)double

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20. Organisms create _____ by drawing molecules from the water around them, but rising acidity depletes those molecules.

1)shells

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21. By removing the essential building blocks of ____ formation, it is making the organisms work a lot harder to build their ____. That means they have less energy to get ______ and ________ and eventually the organism can no longer compete ecologically.

1)shell
2)shells
3)food
4)reproduce

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22. When _____ gets too high, shells dissolve.

1)acidity

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23. Already we have seen water showing up in Northern California that is so _________ it can dissolve seashells.

1)Acidic

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24. Such conditions haven’t existed since the extinction of the ________. Re-creating those conditions so quickly could leave many ocean animals unable to adapt. What if shellfish could no longer build _______? Would they cease to exist? Perhaps.

1)dinosaurs
2)shells
3)Perhaps.

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25. You can’t just worry about the big things in the ocean, you also have to worry about what they eat, and where their food comes from. If the smallest things in the ocean are affected by ocean acidification, then it ripples all the way up the _____ ____, making the largest things in the ocean even more ___endangered_____.

1)food web
2)endangered