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Flashcards in Chapter 3 and garbage patch Deck (27):

Give the definition and an example for each of the following: atoms, elements, molecules, hydrogen bonds.

a. Atoms- all matter is made of it. Only 118 known substances.
b. Elements- substances made of one atom.
c. Molecules- substances with two or more atoms chemically combined into larger particles.
d. Hydrogen bonds- created by one oxygen atom and two small hydrogen atoms. They have opposite charges that create electrical attractions between two water molecules.


Why is hydrogen bonding important?

a. It makes other bonds stronger, keeps water in a liquid form.


Name the 3 states of matter that water exists in

a. Solid, liquid, or gas. Water is the only substance that can be all three of these forms.


4. What is polarity? What charge does the oxygen side of a water molecule have? The hydrogen side?

a. Polarity is the fact positive and negative charges want to come together. Oxygen has a weak negative charge, while hydrogen has a slightly positive charge


5. What is cohesion and adhesion?

a. Cohesion is when water is attracted to water, adhesion is water attracted to other substances and surfaces.


6. Water has high heat capacity. Why does that matter to marine organisms? (Hint: it helps water resist something)

a. It’s important because then the organisms won’t be subject to the wide range of temperatures often seen on land.


7. Which is more dense: cold water or warm water?

a. Cold water is denser.


8. Why does ice float? Why is that important?

a. Ice is less dense than liquid due to all the air being trapped in it. Therefore, ice floats. It’s important because if ice did not float then the water would freeze from bottom up eventually freezing the whole thing. Since it floats it creates a barrier between the air temperature and the water below the ice so it won’t freeze.


9. How does water dissolve salt? What is salinity?

a. By breaking down the molecules that are put into the water. Salinity is the level of solutes (solutes are any substance dissolved in water). (main solutes are sodium and choride)


10. On average, the salinity of the ocean is ___ ppt.



11. What color penetrates into the ocean the least? What color penetrates the deepest?

a. Red is the least, blue is the deepest


12. Why would a fish’s swim bladder protrude from the mouth if you pulled it up from the deep ocean?

a. Since the pressures are different, when you pull the fish to the surface the pressure decreases so the gas in the swim bladder expands. Causing it to protrude from it’s mouth. If the fish goes back the bladder would have to be punctured to let the air out or it won’t be able to go back down.


13. What are gyres?

a. A large, nearly circular system of wind-driven surface currents that center around latitude 30 degrees in both hemispheres. Major surface currents.


14. What does it mean that the ocean is stratified? What are the layers? Why would the different layers effect the marine organisms living there?

a. The ocean is stratified meaning it’s cut into three sections or “layers”. The layers are the surface layer. Top-200m, this layer is well mixed. There is the intermediate layer, from 200-1500m; sharp temperature change, less mixing occurs. Then the deep (bottom) layer. 1500m and below, low mixing and uniformly cold. The pressure affects their body, the density their life.


15. What is downwelling? What is upwelling? Why are these processes important to marine organisms?

a. Downwelling is bringing gases from the surface to deeper layers. Upwells brings nutrient from the deep layer to the surface. The creatures that live in each area need the water to bring them the sustenance they need or else they wouldn’t get it.


16. Name and define the different parts of a wave.

a. The highest part of the wave is called a crest. The lowest part called a trough. The size of a wave is defined by the height- distance between crest and trough. Distance between crest/trough is wavelength. Faster and longer wind the bigger the wave is.


17. What causes tides?

a. The rhythmic rising and falling of sea-surface levels. Caused by gravitational pull of moon on ocean.


18. What is a semidiurnal tide?

a. When a location has two high tides and two low tides a day. Tides at night are higher and lower in daytime.


What type of tide do we have on the East coast of Florida?

a. Semidiurnal tide


20. What are spring tides and neap tides?

a. When the sun and the moon are aligned making the tidal range even greater. These are spring tides, that happen every month. Neap tides occur between spring tides when the two aren’t aligned


21. How do tides affect organisms?

a. Low tide areas have greater effect. It mixes the water, can uproot organisms, affect their homes, etc. organisms will time reproduction on tides.


22. How many garbage patches are there?



23. Which garbage patch is the biggest?

The great pacific garbage patch size of eastern australia


24. The biggest garbage patch is the size of the state of ___ ____.



25. How many plastic bottles (approximately) are put in landfills every second?



26. Why don’t you see as much red plastic trash as other colored trash?

a. Because they look like food to birds more than any other color.


29. How many million tons of plastic are estimated to be in the trash gyres?

7.25 million