Flashcards in Chapter 1. Cell Injury - Free Radicals Deck (6)
how do drugs like acetaminophen make free radicals? how is this harmful? what is a good treatment method?
acetaminophen is converted into acetaminophen FR in the liver
-may cause diffuse chemical hepatitis
--liver cell necrosis initially occurs around central vein (zone III) and can occur at nontoxic levels in alcoholics
--produces transient decrease in functional factor VII to prolong PT
--treat with N-acetylcysteine to increase glutathione synthesis
-may cause renal papillary necrosis (NSAIDs)
how does carbon tetrachloride make FRs? how is this harmful?
converted into CCl3 FRs in the liver
-produces liver cell necrosis with fatty change
what FR does cigarette smoke make?
-quinone/hydroquinone FRs made from tar
-makes NO, which reacts with other reactive species to make more FR
how are free radicals neutralized? (5 ways)
1. superoxide dismutase (SOD)
-converts superoxide to peroxide and O2
2. glutathione peroxidase in PPP
-neutralizes H2O2, hydroxyl, and acetaminophen FR
3. catalase (in peroxisomes)
-degrades peroxide into O2 and water
-E prevents lipid peroxidation in membranes and neutralizes ox-LDL
-C is best neutralizer of hydroxyl FR in smokers
-neutralizes FRs in cytosol
what might happen if you treat RDS (respiratory distress syndrome) with an O2 concentration > 50%?
retinopathy of prematurity (blindness)