Damjanov - Hormonal Diseases of the Ovary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Damjanov - Hormonal Diseases of the Ovary Deck (15)
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what is the basis of oral contraceptives?

inhibition of FSH with synthetic estrogens/progesterones


inhibin VS activin

secreted by granulosa cells
-inhibin promotes androgen synthesis, but inhibits conversion to estrogen, and negatively feeds back to pituitary
-activin inhibits androgen synthesis and promotes conversion to estrogens, and activates pituitary


how does estrogen affect the uterus?

development and growth during puberty and pregnancy depends on estrogen
-endometrium proliferates in response to estrogen


how does estrogen affect the vagina?

essential for normal development
-promotes proliferation and maturation of vaginal epithelium and accumulation of glycogen


how does estrogen affect the fallopian tubes?

regulates function of ciliated cells, mucus production, and smooth muscle contraction


how does estrogen affect the breast?

development and enlargement during puberty


how does estrogen affect the fat tissue?

stimulates accumulation of fat on hips and breasts


how does estrogen affect the hair growth?

stimulates axillary and pubic hair


how does estrogen affect the bone growth?

stimulates bone growth and important for maintenance of normal bone structure


how does progestin affect the uterus?

maintains integrity of endometrium during second phase of menstrual cycle
-stimulates endometrial glands to secrete and helps prepare endometrium for implantation of fertilized oocyte
-changes viscosity of cervical mucus and composition of fallopian tube secretions


how does progesterone affect the breast?

supports cyclic changes of ducts, lobules, and stroma contributing to enlargement of breast during secretory phase of menstrual cycle


what does amenorrhea result from?

interruption of hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian function


difference between primary and secondary amenorrhea

primary: menarche did not occur by 16 yo
-related to abnormal development of female genital organs or pituitary or genetic metabolic disorders involving pituitary, ovarian, or adrenal hormones

secondary: normally menstruating women later on stop ovulating and don't have menses for different reasons, usually hormonal changes, but also from stress


difference between oligomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia

weak bleeding, painful/irregular menses, and massive menstrual bleeding, respectively


what is used to induce ovulation in women to become pregnant?

clomiphene citrate (uesd in PCOS cases)