Flashcards in Damjanov - Hormonal Diseases of the Ovary Deck (15)
what is the basis of oral contraceptives?
inhibition of FSH with synthetic estrogens/progesterones
inhibin VS activin
secreted by granulosa cells
-inhibin promotes androgen synthesis, but inhibits conversion to estrogen, and negatively feeds back to pituitary
-activin inhibits androgen synthesis and promotes conversion to estrogens, and activates pituitary
how does estrogen affect the uterus?
development and growth during puberty and pregnancy depends on estrogen
-endometrium proliferates in response to estrogen
how does estrogen affect the vagina?
essential for normal development
-promotes proliferation and maturation of vaginal epithelium and accumulation of glycogen
how does estrogen affect the fallopian tubes?
regulates function of ciliated cells, mucus production, and smooth muscle contraction
how does estrogen affect the breast?
development and enlargement during puberty
how does estrogen affect the fat tissue?
stimulates accumulation of fat on hips and breasts
how does estrogen affect the hair growth?
stimulates axillary and pubic hair
how does estrogen affect the bone growth?
stimulates bone growth and important for maintenance of normal bone structure
how does progestin affect the uterus?
maintains integrity of endometrium during second phase of menstrual cycle
-stimulates endometrial glands to secrete and helps prepare endometrium for implantation of fertilized oocyte
-changes viscosity of cervical mucus and composition of fallopian tube secretions
how does progesterone affect the breast?
supports cyclic changes of ducts, lobules, and stroma contributing to enlargement of breast during secretory phase of menstrual cycle
what does amenorrhea result from?
interruption of hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian function
difference between primary and secondary amenorrhea
primary: menarche did not occur by 16 yo
-related to abnormal development of female genital organs or pituitary or genetic metabolic disorders involving pituitary, ovarian, or adrenal hormones
secondary: normally menstruating women later on stop ovulating and don't have menses for different reasons, usually hormonal changes, but also from stress
difference between oligomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia
weak bleeding, painful/irregular menses, and massive menstrual bleeding, respectively