Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Chemistry And Measurements Deck (56):

0

## Chemistry

### Study of composition, structure, properties, and ex of matter

1

## Branches of chemistry

###
General chemistry

Organic chemistry

Biological chemistry

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## Matter

### All substances that make up our world

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## General chemistry

### Study of composition, properties, and reaction of matter

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## Organic chemistry

### Study of substances that contain the element carbon

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## Biological chemistry

### Study of the chemical reactions that takes place in biological systems

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## Who were the early chemists?

### Alchemists

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##
What did early chemists study, and do?

###
Extracted metals from ore

designed some of the first lab equipments

Developed early lab procedure

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## Chemical

### Substance that has the same composition and properties wherever it is found. Aka substance

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## What are the units of measurements?

### Length, volume, mass, temperature, and time

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##
Length:

SI unit?

Metric unit?

Smaller unit?

###
Meter (m)

Meter (m)

Centimeter (cm)

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##
Define volume

Metric unit?

SI unit?

###
Amount of space a substance occupies

Metric: liter (L)

SI: cubic meter (cm^3)

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##
1m :__cm

1m: __in

1m:__yd

___cm:1in

###
1m. 100cm

1m. 39.4in

1m. 1.09yd

2.54cm. 1 in

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##
1L :--mL

1L:--qt

--mL:1qt

1000L:--m^3

###
1L. 1000mL

1L. 1.06 qt

946 mL. 1 qt

1000L. 1 m^3

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##
Mass definition

SI unit

Metric unit

###
Measure if the quantity of material it contains

SI unit. Kilogram (kg)

Metric unit. Gram (g)

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##
1kg:--g

1kg:-- lb

--g:1lb

###
1kg:1000 g

1kg:2.20 lb

454 g:1lb

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## What is the difference between weight and Mass? (Define weight)

### Weight is the measure of the gravitational pull of an object.

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##
Temperature

Metric unit

SI unit

###
Measures how hot/cold a substance is

Metric. Celsius

SI. Kelvin

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##
Time metric unit

SI unit

### Seconds (s) for both metric and SI

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## What does a scientific notation equation consist of?

### Coefficient, a power of 10, and a unit of measurement

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## define measured numbers

### Numbers you obtain when you measure a quantity using a measuring tool. These numbers are uncertain.

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## Are non zero numbers significant? ex) 2.5 (How many significant figures?)

### Yes, 2

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## Are zeros at the end of a decimal significant? ex) 21.00 (How many significant figures?)

### Yes, 4

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## Are zeros between nonzero numbers significant? ex) 2.05 (How many significant figures?)

### Yes, 3

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## Are coefficients in a scientific notation equation significant? ex? 5.70 x 10^2 (How many significant figures?)

### Yes, 3

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## Are zeros at the beginning og a decimal number significant? Ex) 0.004 (How many significant figures?)

### No, 1

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## Are zeros used as a place holder in large numbers significant? Ex) 25,000,000

### No, 2

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##
How many significant figures?

5.00 x 10^3

16.00

0.0040

4 x10 ^2

###
5.00 x 10^3 : 3

16.00 : 4

0.0040 : 2

4 x 10 ^2 : 1

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## What are exact numbers?

### Numbers obtained by counting items, are not measured

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## When do you drop numbers when rounding significant figures?

### if the first digit to be dropped is 4 or less then all the following digits are simply dropped.

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## When do you round up significant figures?

### If the first digit to be dropped is 5 or greater then the last retained number is increased by 1.

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##
Round these to 3 and 2 significant figures:

14.780

3262

###
14.780:

-3SF: 14.8

-2SF: 15

3263:

-3SF: 3.26x10^3

-2SF: 3.3.x 10^3

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## What is/are the rule(s) for rounding off significant figures in multiplication and division?

### The final answer is written so it has the same number of significant figures as the measurement with the fewest significant figures.

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## What is/are the rule(s) for rounding off significant figures for addition/subtraction

### the final answer has the same number of decimals as the measurement with the fewest decimals

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## What are the prefixes that increase the size of a unit?

### peta, tera, giga, mega, kilo

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##
Peta

Symbol?

Numerical Value?

Scientific Notation?

###
Peta:

P

1,000,000,000,000,000

10^15

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##
Tera

Symbol?

Numerical Value?

Scientific Notation?

###
Tera

T

1,000,000,000,000

10^12

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##
Giga

Symbol?

Numerical Value?

Scientific Notation?

###
giga

G

1,000,000,000

10^9

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##
Mega

Symbol?

Numerical Value?

Scientific Notation?

###
mega

M

1,000,000

10^6

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##
Kilo

Symbol?

Numerical Value?

Scientific Notation?

###
Kilo

k

1,000

10^3

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## What are the prefixes that decrease the size of a unit?

### deci, centi, milli, micro, nano, pico, femto

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##
deci

Symbol?

Numerical Value?

Scientific Notation?

###
deci

d

0.1

10^-1

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##
centi

Symbol?

Numerical Value?

Scientific Notation?

###
centi

c

0.01

10^-2

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##
milli

Symbol?

Numerical Value?

Scientific Notation?

###
milli

m

0.001

10^-3

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##
micro

Symbol?

Numerical Value?

Scientific Notation?

###
micro

μ(u)

0.000,001

10^-6

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##
nano

Symbol?

Numerical Value?

Scientific Notation?

###
nano

n

0.000,000,001

10^-9

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##
pico

Symbol?

Numerical Value?

Scientific Notation?

###
pico

p

0.000,000,000,001

10^-12

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##
femto

Symbol?

Numerical Value?

Scientific Notation?

###
femto

f

0.000,000,000,000,001

10^-15

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## What is equality?

### Equality shows the relationship between two units that measure the same quantity. (same length, different units)

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## What is a cubic centimeter?

### Volume of a cube with dimensions of 1 cm on each side, 1cm^3 has the same volume as mL

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## ppm

### parts per million (mg/kg)

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## ppb

### parts per billion (mg/kg)

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## Formula for density?

### Mass of substance/ volume of substance

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## when will a substance float in water?

### it it is less dense than water.

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## when will a substance sink in water?

### If it is denser than water.

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