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Chemistry

Study of composition, structure, properties, and ex of matter

1

Branches of chemistry

General chemistry
Organic chemistry
Biological chemistry

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Matter

All substances that make up our world

3

General chemistry

Study of composition, properties, and reaction of matter

4

Organic chemistry

Study of substances that contain the element carbon

5

Biological chemistry

Study of the chemical reactions that takes place in biological systems

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Who were the early chemists?

Alchemists

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What did early chemists study, and do?

Extracted metals from ore
designed some of the first lab equipments
Developed early lab procedure

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Chemical

Substance that has the same composition and properties wherever it is found. Aka substance

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What are the units of measurements?

Length, volume, mass, temperature, and time

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Length:
SI unit?
Metric unit?
Smaller unit?

Meter (m)
Meter (m)
Centimeter (cm)

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Define volume
Metric unit?
SI unit?

Amount of space a substance occupies
Metric: liter (L)
SI: cubic meter (cm^3)

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1m :__cm
1m: __in
1m:__yd
___cm:1in

1m. 100cm
1m. 39.4in
1m. 1.09yd
2.54cm. 1 in

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1L :--mL
1L:--qt
--mL:1qt
1000L:--m^3

1L. 1000mL
1L. 1.06 qt
946 mL. 1 qt
1000L. 1 m^3

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Mass definition
SI unit
Metric unit

Measure if the quantity of material it contains
SI unit. Kilogram (kg)
Metric unit. Gram (g)

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1kg:--g
1kg:-- lb
--g:1lb

1kg:1000 g
1kg:2.20 lb
454 g:1lb

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What is the difference between weight and Mass? (Define weight)

Weight is the measure of the gravitational pull of an object.

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Temperature
Metric unit
SI unit

Measures how hot/cold a substance is
Metric. Celsius
SI. Kelvin

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Time metric unit
SI unit

Seconds (s) for both metric and SI

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What does a scientific notation equation consist of?

Coefficient, a power of 10, and a unit of measurement

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define measured numbers

Numbers you obtain when you measure a quantity using a measuring tool. These numbers are uncertain.

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Are non zero numbers significant? ex) 2.5 (How many significant figures?)

Yes, 2

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Are zeros at the end of a decimal significant? ex) 21.00 (How many significant figures?)

Yes, 4

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Are zeros between nonzero numbers significant? ex) 2.05 (How many significant figures?)

Yes, 3

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Are coefficients in a scientific notation equation significant? ex? 5.70 x 10^2 (How many significant figures?)

Yes, 3

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Are zeros at the beginning og a decimal number significant? Ex) 0.004 (How many significant figures?)

No, 1

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Are zeros used as a place holder in large numbers significant? Ex) 25,000,000

No, 2

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How many significant figures?
5.00 x 10^3
16.00
0.0040
4 x10 ^2

5.00 x 10^3 : 3
16.00 : 4
0.0040 : 2
4 x 10 ^2 : 1

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What are exact numbers?

Numbers obtained by counting items, are not measured

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When do you drop numbers when rounding significant figures?

if the first digit to be dropped is 4 or less then all the following digits are simply dropped.

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When do you round up significant figures?

If the first digit to be dropped is 5 or greater then the last retained number is increased by 1.

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Round these to 3 and 2 significant figures:
14.780
3262

14.780:
-3SF: 14.8
-2SF: 15
3263:
-3SF: 3.26x10^3
-2SF: 3.3.x 10^3

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What is/are the rule(s) for rounding off significant figures in multiplication and division?

The final answer is written so it has the same number of significant figures as the measurement with the fewest significant figures.

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What is/are the rule(s) for rounding off significant figures for addition/subtraction

the final answer has the same number of decimals as the measurement with the fewest decimals

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What are the prefixes that increase the size of a unit?

peta, tera, giga, mega, kilo

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Peta
Symbol?
Numerical Value?
Scientific Notation?

Peta:
P
1,000,000,000,000,000
10^15

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Tera
Symbol?
Numerical Value?
Scientific Notation?

Tera
T
1,000,000,000,000
10^12

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Giga
Symbol?
Numerical Value?
Scientific Notation?

giga
G
1,000,000,000
10^9

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Mega
Symbol?
Numerical Value?
Scientific Notation?

mega
M
1,000,000
10^6

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Kilo
Symbol?
Numerical Value?
Scientific Notation?

Kilo
k
1,000
10^3

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What are the prefixes that decrease the size of a unit?

deci, centi, milli, micro, nano, pico, femto

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deci
Symbol?
Numerical Value?
Scientific Notation?

deci
d
0.1
10^-1

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centi
Symbol?
Numerical Value?
Scientific Notation?

centi
c
0.01
10^-2

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milli
Symbol?
Numerical Value?
Scientific Notation?

milli
m
0.001
10^-3

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micro
Symbol?
Numerical Value?
Scientific Notation?

micro
μ(u)
0.000,001
10^-6

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nano
Symbol?
Numerical Value?
Scientific Notation?

nano
n
0.000,000,001
10^-9

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pico
Symbol?
Numerical Value?
Scientific Notation?

pico
p
0.000,000,000,001
10^-12

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femto
Symbol?
Numerical Value?
Scientific Notation?

femto
f
0.000,000,000,000,001
10^-15

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What is equality?

Equality shows the relationship between two units that measure the same quantity. (same length, different units)

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What is a cubic centimeter?

Volume of a cube with dimensions of 1 cm on each side, 1cm^3 has the same volume as mL

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ppm

parts per million (mg/kg)

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ppb

parts per billion (mg/kg)

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Formula for density?

Mass of substance/ volume of substance

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when will a substance float in water?

it it is less dense than water.

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when will a substance sink in water?

If it is denser than water.

56

What is the density of water?

1