Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

Chem 100 > Chapter 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (57):
1

chemical symbols

one or two letter abbreviations for names of elements

2

periodic table

Arrangement of elements

3

period

horizontal row on the periodic table; there are 7 periods

4

group

vertical column on the periodic table, elements of the same group have similar properties

5

representative elements

Group 1,2 and 13-18 (AKA group numbers 1A-8A)

6

group numbers

1A-8A (from groups 1,2, 13-18)

7

transition elements

center of periodic table (groups 3-12) (group numbers 3B-2B)

8

alkali metals
conducting of heat and electricity
boiling and melting point?

group 1A, with the exception of H
soft, shiny metals, good conductors of heat and electricity, have low boiling and melting points

9

alkaline earth metals

group 2A (2), shiny metals but not as reactive as alkali metals

10

halogens

group 7A- highly reactive

11

noble gases

unreactive

12

metals
appearance?
melting point?
solidity?
conduction of heat and electricity?

shiny solids, malleable, good conductors of heat and electricity, melt at higher temperatures than nonmetals, solid at room temperature (exception: Mercury is liquid at room tempertature

13

Nonmetals
appearance?
density?
solidity?
conduction of heat and electricity?

not shiny, ductile or malleable, poor conductors of heat and electricity, low melting points, low density

14

Metalloids

found at zigzag (exception Aluminum); have characteristics of metals and nonmetals, semiconductors

15

Atom

smallest particle of an element

16

John Dalton's theory of atoms

1. All matter is made of atoms
2. All atoms of a given element is similar to one another and different from other elements
3. Atoms combine to form compounds, all particular compounds contain the same number of atom and same element
4. chemical reactions involve rearrangement, separation, combination of atoms, atoms can't be created or destroyed

17

what produces images of individual atoms?

scanning tunneling microscopes (stm)

18

subatomic particles

protons, neutrons, and electrons

19

Who discovered electrons?

JJ Thompson

20

Electrons

negatively charged, determines the physical and chemical properties of an element

21

protons

positively charged particles that are heavier than electrons

22

What did J.J Thompson and Rutherford discover from the Gold Foil experiment?

the nucleus is positively charged
electrons surround the nucleus and travel undisturbed

23

nucleus

positively charged center with protons

24

neutrons

neutral particle in the nucleus

25

Atomic mass unit (amu)

one twelfth mass of carbon

26

protons, electrons and neutrons in amu

protons and neutrons = 1 amu
electrons = 1 amu

27

atomic number

equals to the number of protons

28

mass number

total number of protons and neutrons

29

isotope

same atomic number but different numbers of neutrons

30

atomic mass

weighted average of all masses of naturally occurring isotopes of that element

31

How do you calculate atomic mass of an element?

mass (amu) * abundance (%/100)= average contribution to element's mass.

32

energy level

occupied by electrons, which has a specific energy,, each energy level has a specific quantum number (n=1-7)

33

which energy level is closer to the nucleus, and which energy level holds more electrons?

the lower the energy level: closer to the nucleus.
Higher energy levels hold more electrons.

34

sublevels

a group of orbitals within the (principal) energy levels. The number of sub levels is the same as the principal quantum number (n)

35

sublevels from lowest energy level to highest

s, p, d, f

36

orbital

region around nucleus where electrons of a certain energy are MORE LIKELY to be found

37

s orbital
shape?
number of orbitals?
as quantum level increases, what happens to the orbitals?
number of total electrons?

sphere,
only one s orbital for every energy level starting at n=1,
as principal quantum level increases, s orbitals increase in size.
4 electrons total

38

p orbital
shape?
number of orbitals?
as quantum level increases, what happens to the orbitals?
number of total electrons?

3 orbitals for every sub level starting at n=2
arranges around x,y, and z axes around nucleus(each shaped like a dumbbell)
orbitals increase in volume as n increases
6 electrons total

39

how many electrons can each orbital hold?

2 electrons

40

d orbitals
how many orbitals for each sublevel?
max total electrons?

5 orbitals
10 electrons

41

f orbitals
how many orbitals?
max total electrons?

7 orbitals
14 electrons

42

electron configuration

shows placement of electrons in the orbitals in order of increasing energy

43

orbital diagram

diagram that shows the distribution of electrons in the orbitals of the energy level

44

s block

groups 1A (1) and 2A (2) (includes H and He)

45

p block

groups 3A (13)to 8A (18)

46

d block

transitional elements, the sub level is (n-1)

47

f black

inner transition elements (bottom 2 rows of the periodic table) the sub level is (n-2)

48

Valence electrons

determines chemical properties of an element, group # equals number of valence electrons, represented by the highest energy level in s and p orbitals

49

atomic size

determined by atomic radius,
atomic size increases as you go down a group
atomic size decreases as you go across a period.
(top right corner= smallest)

50

atomic size periodic table rules exception

transitional elements' atomic radii changes slightly because electrons add to the d orbitals instead of outermost orbitals (s and p)

51

ionization energy

energy required to remove a valence electron in the gaseous state

52

ionization energy rules

ionization energy decreases as you go down the periodic table
ionization energy increases as you go across the period
(bottom left= smallest)

53

cation

when an electron is removed from a neutral atom (due to ionization)

54

what happens when positive charge increases?

more ionization energy is required

55

do metals have high ionization energies?
do nonmetals?

metals have low ionization and nonmetals have high ionization energies.

56

metallic character

elements with high metallic character loses electrons easily

57

metallic character rules on the periodic table

metallic character decreases as you go across a period
metallic character increases as you go down a group.
(top right corner= least metallic-ness)