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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (77):
1

what are the most prevalent type of elements in nature?

compound

2

why are noble gases usually found by itself in nature?

they are stable because they have an octet

3

octet rule

tendency for atoms to share/transfer electrons to obtain 8 valence electrons

4

what type of elements are an exception to the octet rule?

transition elements

5

ions

electrical charge from gain/loss of electrons

6

what charge do metals have and why?

positive, they have low ionization energies (lose electrons easily)

7

ionic charge

difference between number of protons and number of electrons on upper right hand corner of symbol

8

cations

positively charged ions of metals

9

why are metal ions smaller than metal atoms?

because they lose electrons and its' energy level decreases

10

anions

negatively charged ions of nonmetals

11

what ending does anions have?

-ide

12

do nonmetals gain or lose electrons and why?

they gain electrons, they have high ionization

13

What are the charges of elements in group:
1A(1) ,2A(2) ,3A(3) ,7A(17) ,6A(16) ,5A(15)

group 1- 1+
group 2- 2+
group 3- 3+
group 17- 1-
group 16- 2-
group 5- 3-

14

what are the exceptions of the ionic charge and group number pattern?

transition elements, and group 4A(14) do not typically form ions (exception Sn, and Pb)

15

Ionic compounds

compound of positive and negative ions held together by ionic bonds (typically metal and nonmetal)

16

ionic bonds

attraction between positively charged metal ions and negatively charged nonmetal ions

17

are the physical and chemical properties of ionic compounds similar to its original elements?

no

18

ionic compounds generally have ___melting points and are ____ at room temperature

high melting points and
solid at room temperature

19

chemical formula

represents symbols and subscripts in the lowest whole number ratio of the atoms or ions

20

what is the order of writing a chemical formula?

cations first, then anions

21

How do you name an ionic formula?

metal ion first then nonmetal ion (space in between both)

22

why is it hard to determine the charge of transition elements?

because they can lose s and d electrons which allows them to form 2 or more positive ions

23

which group has the same rule as transition elements when it comes to naming them? and what are the exceptions?

Groups 4A (14) and 5A (15)
exceptions: Zn2+, Ag+, Cd2+

24

how do you name transition elements?

you use roman numerals that represents its ionic charge in parentheses after the cations

25

what elements have a variable change?

Any element that can form 2 or more positive ions.
ex: transition elements and group 14,15

26

polyatomic ions

group of covalent bonded atoms that has an overall ionic charge

27

what makes up most of polyatomic ions?

a nonmetal bonded to an oxygen

28

what do polyatomic ions generally end in?

-ate

29

when does a polyatomic ion end in -ite

if it has one less oxygen than -ate

30

which group can form 4 different polyatomic ions with oxygen?

group 7A

31

when do you add the prefix "per-"

when it has one more oxygen than the "ate" form

32

when do you add the prefix "hypo-",

when it has one less oxygen than the "-ite" form

33

List the prefixes and suffixes in order from most oxygen to least.

per- -ate
-ate
-ite
hypo- -ate

34

How do you name polyatomic ions?

positive ion + polyatomic ion

35

Covalent compound

two nonmetals share electrons

36

why can't nonmetals share electrons?

they have high ionization energies

37

covalent bonds

nonmetals share electrons

38

molecule

2 or more atoms that share electrons, AKA covalent bond

39

lewis dot structure/ electron dot formula

shows valence electrons in covalent molecule

40

bonding pair

the electrons that are being shared

41

lone pairs

the electrons that aren't being bonded

42

how are bonding pairs represented on the LDS/EDF?

2 dots or a line

43

Which elements are exceptions to the octet rule? (can form more than 8 electrons?) how many can they form?

P,S,Cl,Br,I
can form 10,12,14 valence electrons

44

double bond

2 pairs of electrons shared

45

triple bond

3 pairs of electrons shared

46

Which elements will not form double or triple bonds?

hydrogen and halogens

47

why do double and triple bonds form?

when there aren't enough valence electrons to complete an octet, so lone pairs are shared

48

resonance structures

all possible ways to write the electron dot formula

49

how do you name covalent bonds?

using full name of first element+ second element's first syllabi+ "-ide"

50

what prefixes can you use in front of elements?

mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca

51

electronegativity

ability of atom to attract shared electrons in a bond, it determines if electrons are shared evenly or unevenly

52

which element has the highest electronegativity?

Flourine

53

which generally has a higher electronegativity?

nonmetals

54

transitions have ___ electronegativity

low

55

what is the electronegativity of noble gases?

they dont have any elevtronegativity values

56

nonpolar covalent bond

electrons shared equally, atoms have identical/similiar electronegativity

57

polar covalent bond

electrons arent shared equally because there is an electronegativity difference

58

dipole

polar covalent bond that has a slight charge on each atom

59

if a polar covalent bond has an atom with higher electronegativity the charge is

partially negative

60

if a polar covalent bond has an atom with lower electronegativity the charge is

partially positive

61

what is the acceptable electronegativity difference for a atom to be considered a nonpolar covalent bond?

0.4 or less

62

what is the acceptable electronegativity difference for a atom to be considered a polar covalent bond?

0.5-1.8

63

the polarity of a bond increases as the electronegativity difference____.

increases

64

what is the acceptable electronegativity difference for a atom to be considered an ionic bond?

1.9 or higher

65

valence shell electron pair repulsion(VSEPR) theory?

a theory that predicts the shape of a molecule by placing electron pairs on a central atom as far apart as possible to minimize the mutual repulsion of the electrons

66

linear
# of electron groups, bonded atoms and bond angle

shape of a molecule, 2 electron groups and 2 bonded atoms
bond angle-180

67

trigonal planar

shape of a molecule, 3 electron groups, 3 bonded atoms, bond angle-120

68

bent

shape of a molecule, 4 or 3 electron groups, 2 bonded atoms
bond angle-120

69

tetrahedral

4 atoms attached to 4 electron groups
bond angle- 109

70

how does a tetrahedral bond?

at the corner of central atoms

71

trigonal pyramidal

4 electron groups, 3 bonds (1 lone pair)
bond angle- 109

72

nonpolar molecules

all bond are nonpolar OR when polar bonds/dipoles cancel each other because of symmetrical arrangement

73

polar molecules

one end of molecule is more negatively charged than another end

74

when does polarity occur

when polar bonds/dipoles dont cancel out

75

when are molecules usually nonpolar?

when a polar molecule with 3 or more atoms contain a lone pair

76

relationship of low attractive force and melting/boiling point

low attractive force= low melting/boiling points

77

relationship of high attractive force and melting/boiling point

high melting and boiling points