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Flashcards in Chapter 1 exam Deck (80):
1

function of macronutrients

energy
structure
allows us to move

2

what percentage of our bodies are made up of the macronutrients

oxygen 65%
carbon 18%
hydrogen 10%
nitrogen 3%

3

4 types of carbs

1. monosaccharides
2. disaccharides
3. oligosaccharides
4. polysaccharides

4

what are the 6-carbon sugars

glucose
fructose
galactose

5

what is another name for glucose

dextrose

6

1. What is glucose
2. food sources of glucose
3. function

1. blood sugar
2. fruits and grains
3. immediate response to energy

7

what nutrient do we use at rest

fat is used at rest

8

what is gluconeogenesis

making glucose from non carb sources in the liver

9

Fructose (levulose)
1. sources
2. functions

1. honey and fruits
2. conversion into glucose

10

Galactose

1. cannot eat it, pre cursor to lactose
2. function is conversion into glucose for energy

11

3 disaccharides

1. sucrose
2. lactose
3. maltose

12

sucrose

glucose +fructose
found in sugar and honey
25% of total caloric intake in US

13

Lactose

glucose + galactose
not a sweet flavor

14

maltose

glucose + glucose
found in cereals and germinating grains

15

food source of oligosaccharides

seed legumes

16

what is the form of stored energy

calories

17

2 classifications of polysaccharides

1. plant: starches and fiber
2. animal: glycogen

18

Starch
1. what kind of carb
2. function
3. sources
4. types

1. complex carbs
2. function in plants is storage
3. rice, bread, and potatoes
4. amylopectin(highly branched monosaccharide linkage)
amylose( straight chain of glucose units twisted into a helical coil)

19

Fiber
1. type of polysaccharide
2. type of material
3. types

1. non starch structural polysaccharide
2. fibrous material (no nutrients or calories)
3. soluble gums and pectins
insoluble cellulose hemicellulose and lignin

20

role of fiber

1. water retention
2. helps keep things moving
3. helps prevent diarrhea
4. binding and diluting chemicals

21

when intaking fiber, what has decreased rates in terms of health issues

1. obesity
2. insulin resistance
3. metabolic system
4. systemic inflammation

22

why does fiber intake help with obesity

1. soluble fiber helps keep you full longer
2. insoluble fiber takes up a lot of room in the stomach`

23

recommended fiber intake

14 grams per 1000 cals consumed

25/38 grams

24

what happens if you intake too much fiber

1. nutrient deficiency
2. abdominal discomfort
3. caloric deficiency

25

function of glycogen in animals

storage of carbs in the muscle and liver

26

function of muscle glycogen

major source of energy during exercise

27

function of liver glycogen

during exercise, glygogenolysis

28

role of insulin

decreases blood sugar and is triggered by pancreatic beta cells

29

role of glucagon

raises blood sugar and is triggered by pancreatic alpha cells and liver glycogenolysis

30

how much glycogen do we store in our bodies

15g/kg BW

31

what is the recommended intake of carbs

45-65% of diet

32

what are the 2 main functions of carbs

1. energy source
2. fuel source for CNS

33

3 types of lipids

1. simple lipids: body fat/adipose
2. compound lipids: store in bloodstream
3. derived lipids: make from simple and compound

34

types of simple lipids

1. saturated FA
2. Unsaturated FA
3. polyunsaturated

35

sources of saturated fatty acids

coconut oil, butter, animal sources

solid at room temp

36

unsaturated FA

found in plant sources
healthier for you
liquid at room temp

37

list from most healthy to least healthy the different types of simple lipids

1. polyunsaturated
2. monounsaturated
3. saturated
4. hydrogenated

38

why should we eat omega 3's

prevent
heart disease
inflammation
lipid profile

39

what type of cholesterol does saturated fat have

LDL

40

why are trans fats bad

the arterial walls stiffen

41

what are HDL

high density lipoprotein
20%lipid
50% protein
20% cholesterol
-protects against heart disease
-reverses cholesterol transport
-pick up cholesterol from arterial walls
-unsaturated
-exercise
-males need 40mg/dL
-females need 50mg/dL

42

LDL

low density lipoprotein
80% lipid
-carries cholesterol to artery walls
-saturated and trans fat

43

VLDL

very low density lipoprotein
95% lipid

44

derived lipids

formed form simple/compound lipids
-cholesterol

45

what is endogenous cholesterol and exogenous cholesterol

endogenous: make from our lipoproteins in liver

exogenous: obtained from plants

46

function of cholesterol

1. plasma membrane
2. precursor to vit D
3. precursor for sex hormones
4. synthesize bile

47

how to treat atherosclerosis

reduce LDL and increase HDL and reduce cholesterol

48

recommended lipid intake

20-35% total calories
-400-700 calories

49

role of lipids in the body

1. energy
2. protection of vital organs
3. insulation
4. transport medium

50

what are our average protein stores in the body

10-12 kg within muscle mass

51

what are the essential amino acids

1. lysine
2. threonine
3. leucine
4. histodine (only for kids)

52

what are the non essential amino acids

1. alanine
2. arganine
3. cysteine

53

what is a complete protein source and the source

it contains all amino acids in the correct amount
get them from animals

54

what is an incomplete protein source

missing some amino acids or not in the right amount
get them from plant sources

55

what happens if you consume too much protein

it harms the liver and it is not stored as extra muscle mass

56

recommended intake of protein

10-35% calories
200-700 calories

57

role of protein in the body

muscle and visceral tissue
blood plasma(blood clotting)

58

define micro-nutrients

small quantities of vitamins and minerals that facilitate energy transfer and tissue synthesis

59

Vitamins info

-don't supply energy
-don't contribute to body mass
-body can't produce them

60

what are the fat and water soluble vitamins that we are concerned about

Fat Soluble: ADEK
Water Soluble: C and B complex

61

what are fat soluble vitamins

they are vitamins that are dissolved and stored in fat

62

Vitamin A
1. functions
2. food sources
3. Toxicity

1. function is vision, builds and maintains epithelial tissue
2. orange foods and leafy greens
3. Toxicity in children includes bone swelling, weight loss, dry-itchy skin
Toxicity in adults includes nausea, diarrhea, headaches, hair loss

63

Vitamin D
1. functions
2. Sources
3. Toxicity
4. deficiencies

1. functions: gene regulation, bone growth
2. sources: dairy, grains, fish when you eat the bones, sunlight
3. toxicity: children: calcium deposits, heart and kidney damage, mental retardation
Adults: vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss
4. deficiencies: osteoporosis and rickets (osteomalacia)

64

Vitamin E
1. function
2. sources
3. toxicity

1. function: antioxidant, blunts free radicals, helps prevent heart disease and cancer
2. sources: leafy greens, nuts, seeds, and corresponding oils
3. toxicity is very rare, but can develop anemia

65

Vitamin K
1. where is it produced
2. functions
3. sources
4. toxicity

1. produced in gut bacteria
2. function: blood clotting
3. sources: leafy greens
4. Toxicity is not an issue unless you take prescription meds

66

what do water soluble vitamins do

-act as coenzymes
-pair with amino acids
-form active enzymes

67

can we store water soluble vitamins

no, and we cannot get toxicity from them either

68

what vitamin does vitamin C react with to become a synergistic pair

iron

69

Vitamin C
1. functions
2. sources

1. antioxidant, helps prevent heart disease, cancer, wound healing, bone formation, enhances iron absorption
2. citrus fruits

70

B Vitamins
1. functions
2. sources
3. deficiencies

1. function: energy and metabolism, neuromuscular function, hormone formation, energy released, blood formation
2. sources: meat, legumes, beans
3. anemia, neurological disorders, fatigue, depression

71

what percent of our body mass is minerals

4%

72

what are the major minerals

sodium
phosphorous
magnesium
calcium

73

trace minerals

iron
potassium
manganese

74

what is the role of minerals in the body

1. structure
2. metabolism
3. physiologic function: heart rate, muscular contractility, neural conduction, pH balance

75

define bioavailability

how we absorb/utilize substances
factors include:
1. type of food,
2. mineral mineral interaction
3. vitamin-mineral interactions
4. fiber-mineral interactions

76

Calcium
1. how much do we need
2. function
3. deficiency

1. 1000mg/day
2. functions: store in skeletal system, muscle function, blood clotting, nerve transmission, blood pressure regulation
3. osteoporosis, osteopenia

77

how to prevent osteoporosis

1. adequate dietary calcium and vitamin D
2. diverse fruits and veggies
3. don't consume a lot of soda
4. exercise

78

Phosphorus
1. function
2. sources
3. deficiency

1. skeletal system support, phospholipid production, metabolism
2. leafy greens, bananas, meats/seafood, nuts and seeds
3. deficiency is weakness and demineralization
-excess results in Phossy Jaw and erosion

79

Magnesium
1. functions
2. sources
3. deficiency

1. maintains blood pressure, muscular strength, enzyme formation, regulates cell growth, glucose metabolism
2. leafy greens bananas
3. deficiencies include growth failure, behavior disturbances and diarrhea

80

Iron
1. sources

animal sources, beans and legumes