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Flashcards in Exam 3 extra topics Deck (43):
1

define calorie

amount of energy it takes for 1 gram of H2) to change 1 degree Celsius
-objective unit used to measure the energy value of food

2

define up thermoregulate

increase heat

3

2 ways to measure the rate of heat production

1. Direct Calorimetry
-water at a constant temperature
-increase=energy production
2. Indirect Calorimetry
-02 uptake=energy expenditure
-in mg/O2/kg min (VO2)

4

define MET

a measure of intensity of activity
-1 met load=3.5 mLO2/kg/min

5

between the 2 measurements of heat production, which is more accurate?`

Direct calorimetry

6

Types of open circuit indirect calorimetry

1. partable
2. bag technique

7

how to calculate MET

1 Met= Cal(1/kg)(1/hour)

8

what are the 3 factors that energy expenditure is based on

1. RMR
2. Thermodynamic effect of food
3. BMR and sleep

9

define Basal Metabolic Rate

1. O2 consumed during waking state
2. more O2 consumed=higher BMR

10

how to measure BMR

Food< 12 hours
Exercise< 12 hours
Rest 30-60 min in temp and light controlled room

11

What percentage of energy do the following factors have:
TEF
Exercise
RMR

TEF=10%
Exercise= 30%
RMR= 60%

12

define Thermodynamic effect of food

requires digestion, absorption, and excretion and it peaks about an hour after consuming food

13

by how much does physical activity increase RMR

10 times

14

what 3 components make up the Total Daily energy expenditure

RMR
TEF
Exercise

15

2 things that can affect RMR

climate
pregnancy

16

calculation for BMI

weight(kg)/height(m^2)

17

purpose of the BMI

blood pressure
obesity
diabetes
CHD

18

what percentage of US adults were obese in 2015

65%

19

what percentage of a persons weight is determined by genetics

80%

20

what occurs when a person has 2 copies of the FTO gene

70% chance that they will have increased weight

21

what occurs when a person has 1 copy of FTO and 1 copy of FTO2

30% chance of increased weight

22

what occurs when a person has 2 copies of FTO2

0-10%chance of increased weight

23

what race burns about 100 calories less per day

African Americans

24

what is the function of the Ob gene when it functions properly

1. promotes formation of hormone-like leptin
2. exercise and metabolism control (hypothalamus)
3. Leptin helps to regulate fat stores

25

what occurs when the Ob gene becomes mutated

1. there is an absence of leptin which causes continual hunger and marked obesity
2. abnormal response to leptin
-hunger cues
-energy expenditure

26

what is the nurture category for weight

1. active or inactive time
2. income levle
3. education level
4. parent education level
5. stress levels: higher cortisol
6. eating habits

27

what happens during the plateau stage of weight loss

the person stops achieving weight loss because their RMR decreases since they have lost weight

28

what is the set point theory

set point theory states that the hypothalamus has a predetermined weight that and individual should be and if they decrease their weight it automatically makes them hungrier and vice versa if they gain weight

29

ways to treat obesity

1. make eating a ritual
2. use smaller dishes
3. eat slowly
4. follow a meal plan
5. make smart choices about fat
6. physical activity
7. well balanced and less of it

30

Characteristics of Anorexia Nervosa

1. weight is below 85% of normal body weight
2. restriction of diet
3. body image issues
4. menstrual abnormalities: missed period for 3 months

31

Bulimia characteristics

1. binge eating: 2 times per day for 3 months
2. Purging: 2 times per day for 3 months
3. no restricted intake
4. body image issues
5. fear of being fat
6. no abnormal body weight or menstrual abnormalities

32

what are the signs for Bulimia

1. dry brittle hair
2. Russell's signs on knuckles
3. poor dental health

33

Binge eating characteristics

1. can't stop eating
2. body image
3. 2 times per day for 3 months
4. low self esteem
5. don't purge
6. no menstrual abnormalities

34

define amenorrhea

3 missed periods or haven't menstruated by age 15

35

how to identify adonis complex

frequent washings
checking appearance
baggy or tight clothing
excessive exercise

36

what is required on nutrition labels

1. calories
2. total fats
3. total carbs
4. fiber
5. cholesterol
6. sodium

37

What are Daily values for:
1. Total Fat
2. Saturated fat
3. Cholesterol
4. Total carb
5. fiber
6. sodium
7. protein

1. fat: 65g
2. saturated fat: 20 g
3. cholesterol: 300 mg
4. total carb: 300 g
5. fiber: 25 grams
6. sodium 2400 mg
7. protein: 50 grams

38

define organics

free from
1. pesticides, herbicides. insecticides, fungicides
2. synthetic fertilizers
3. ionizing radiation
4. GMO's
5. Antibiotics
6. Hormones

39

what process do farmers have to go through in order to grow organic products

3 year process
1. 1st year still marketed as conventional
2. 2nd year in conversion
3. organically sold

40

how many days of pasture must cows have access to in order to be considered organic

120 days

41

how many days do cows need to have access to pasture to be considered grass-fed

365

42

benefits of GMO's

1. stress resistant
2. more nutritionally sound
3. increased productivity

43

drawbacks of GMO's

carcinogenic