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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (50):
1

what are the 3 main electrolytes

1. sodium
2. Potassium
3. Chlorine

2

what are the functions of electrolytes

1. fluid exchange
2. blood pressure regulation
3. stimulation of muscle fibers

3

what does higher sodium concentrations cause

a spike in blood pressure

4

how does the sodium aldosterone pump work

if sodium concentration is low-moderate: aldosterone is released and is transported to the kidneys to retain Na

if sodium concentration is high: aldosterone retained and the kidneys release sodium,

5

how much sodium do you need

1. 500mg/day
2. RDA 2300mg/day

average intake however is 3500-4000mg

6

how to treat Hypertension

1. cut sodium
2. medications
3. DASH(dietary approach to stop hypertension
- physical activity
-normal body weight
-alcohol intake
-Na/adequate K
-fruits, veggies, low fat dairy

7

what is the name for low sodium

hyponatremia

8

symptoms of hyponatremia

1. muscle cramps
2. nausea
3. vomiting
4. dizziness
5. shock
6. coma
7. death

9

what percentage of your total body mass is composed of water

40-70%

10

functions of water

1. hydration
2. transport medium
3. maintenance of body temp
4. structure
5. joint lubrication

11

how much water should one ingest

half your body weight in ounces

12

how much water is output in urine/defication, sweat, and insensible perspiration

Urine: 1.5L
Sweat: 12L
Insensible Perspiration: .5-.7L

13

what is the PCr system

fastest ATP production system
anaerobic
fueled by PC
activities lasting less than 10 seconds

14

Glycolysis system

1. fueled by glycogen
2. second fastest
3. used for activity lasting 1-3 minutes

15

where do carbs used during exercise come from

1. food
2. bloodstream
3. liver

16

where does glucose come from as intensity increases

the liver

17

what happens when glucose/glycogen stores are depleted

we get glucose from gluconeogenesis

18

During Strenuous Exercise:
1. what is the VO2 max percentage
2. where do we get the energy
3. how fast is depletion

1. 70-90% of VO2 max
2. energy comes from liver and muscle glycogen
3. 50% is depleted after 1 hour

19

During moderate exercise:
1. what is utilized
2. what kind of depletion

1. 50/50 split between fat and carb utilization
2. glycogen and blood glucose is depleted so carbs are the major energy source

20

which gender utilizes fat better

women

21

what is a problem with not consuming enough carbs

you have lower muscle glycogen stores
rapid depletion
decreased performance

22

what percentage of fat is utilized for energy demand

30-80%

23

when does fat use decrease

when activity increases

24

where does the fat come from that is utilized

1. adipose tissue (primary source)
2. lipoproteins
3. intramuscular triglycerides

25

what is the fat burning zone

55-72% VO2 max

to solve:
220-your age multiplied by .55 or .72

26

what is the RDA for protein during exercise

1.2-1.8 g/kg BW

27

what is the moderation rule for dieting

80% of the time eat healthy
20% splurge

28

What is the emphasis of My Plate

nutrient density

29

according to My Plate what is the number of serving s we should have for
1. fruits
2. veggies
3. proteins
4. dairy
5. grains
6.

fruits 2 servings
2-3 servings of veggies
5-6 oz proteins
3 servings of dairy
6-8 oz/serving of grains

30

pros and cons of my plate

Pros: practical, intuitive
Cons: fruit vs fruit juice

31

benefits of carbs

1. muscle and liver glycogen stores
2. rapid digestion
3. lower thermic effect of food
4. 150-300g carbs

32

alternatives to high carb meals during events

1. liquid meals
2. powders
3. bars

33

benefits of liquid meals

higher carbs (33g)
reduced muscle damage
rapid digestion

34

benefits of nutrition bars

easy to use

35

benefits of protein powder

easy
GI residue
satiety

36

when are you considered to be hypothermic

when body temp is below 83 degrees

37

when are you considered to by hyperthermic

107 degrees

38

what causes elevation or decrease in body temp

1. environmental temp
2. food
3. pathogens
4. hypozia
5. trauma

39

what makes a good thermoregulator

1. acclimatization
2. fitness status
3. gender
4. body size
5. age
6. adequacy of hydration

40

Acclimatization
1. how long does it take
2. how fast can we lose it
3. what makes someone good at acclimatizing

1. it takes 8-14 days to acclimatize, 10 days average
2. lose it within 2 days
3. genetics, nature of exposure, age, and emotional response to stress

41

who are good thermoregulators

adults!

children have decreased sweating rates and do not regulate heat very well

42

what percentage of weight loss is required to be considered dehydrated

1%

43

what is lasix

prescription diuretic

44

what amount of water should be consumed 20 min before a workout

12-20oz

45

how much water do you need to rehydrate after working out

125-150% of loss

1lb lost=16oz

should consume 8-12oz during exercise

46

first signs of heat illness

1. thirst
2. tiredness
3. grogginess
4. blurry vision

47

heat cramps

cramps in the exercised muscles and stomach
-caused by dehydration and electrolyte imbalance

treated by drinking water and sports drinks along with using a moist cloth and fan

48

heat exhaustion

most common
BP drops
headache
body temp is less than 104
goosebumps

caused by depleted plasma volume, decreased central blood flow and increased peripheral blood flow

treated with cooling techniques and if severe enough fluid IV

49

heat stroke

not as common
body is not properly regulating its mechanisms
people do not sweat

symptoms:
dry skin
temp exceeding 104
hot skin

treatment:
alcohol rubs
ice packs

50

what is hyponatremia

low salt concentration
water intoxication
less than 155mEq/L
rapid water influx into the brain