Chapter 1 Food Selection Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Food Selection Deck (64):
1

The 5 criteria for sensory evaluation

Sight, odor, taste, touch, and sound

2

The 5 ways that eyes receive first impression of foods

Shape, color, consistency, serving size, appearance

3

Volatile Molecules

Molecules capable of evaporating like a gas into the air

4

Olfactory

Relating to the sense of smell

5

The 2 Classifications of Odor

6 groupings: Spicy, flowery, fruity, resinous, burnt, foul
4groupings: Fragrant (sweet), acid (sour), burnt, caprylic (goaty)

6

Volatile molecules travel through the air and are detected by the ______ ______.

Olfactory cells

7

The most influential factor in food selection

Taste

8

Gustatory

Relating to the sense of taste

9

Taste occurs when a substance ______________.

...stimulates the taste buds

10

Gustatory Cells

Taste buds connected to the brain via nerve cells

11

In order to be tasted, a substance must be _____

...dissolved in 99.5% liquid or saliva

12

Olfactory Nerve

Where nerve endings go to dissolve gas into saliva; approx the size of a stamp

13

Trigeminal Nerve

Senses pain (ie pepper)

14

The 3 important factors of odor

Volatile, solubility (dissolves gas into saliva), concentration (to detect odor)

15

The factor to determining taste is the degree to which _______

... a compound can be dissolved

16

Glossopharyngeal Nerve

9th nerve of taste, in back of the mouth

17

The 5 taste stimuli

Sweet, sour, bitter, salty, savory

18

Taste Interactions

When compounds that contribute to taste combine to create new tastes

19

3 Factors affecting taste

Genetic variation among individuals, temperature of food or beverage, variety in available food (repeatedly eating the same food decreases the taste)

20

Flavor

The combined sense of taste, odor, and mouthfeel

21

Aroma provides ___% of the impression of flavor

75%

22

3 Factors Affecting Touch

Texture, (perceived through sight, touch, and mouthfeel), Consistency (Firmness, Thickness), Astringency (Dry, Puckery feeling in mouth)

23

Chemethesis

Perceiving heat and coolness in foods that are not physically hot (chili peppers) or cold (mints)

24

Hearing is affected by ____

... water content

25

Sound: Crunching is more/less desirable, bending is more/less desirable

more; less

26

The 2 US Government Documents for Nutritional Criteria

Dietary Guidelines (2010, written every 5 years), My Pyramid (Visual guide based on dietary guidelines to help individuals make better food and lifestyle choices).

27

MyPyramid's 6 food groups

1.Complex Carbohydrates
2.Vegetables
3.Fruits
4.Milk
5.Meat and Beans
6.Oil

28

The most important thing on the Food Pyramid for the Elderly. Why is it most important for them?

Water; They lose their sensation of thirst

29

C.A.M.

Complimentary & Alternative Medicine

30

Nutraceutical

Bioactive compound (nutrient and non-nutrient) that has health benefits

31

Monograph

A summary sheet (fact sheet) describing a substance in terms of name (common and scientific), chemical constituents, functional uses (medical and common), dosage, side effects, drug interactions, and references

32

Functional Food

Food or beverage with a physiological benefit - enhances overall health, prevents or treats a disease/condition, or improves physical/mental performance.

33

The 3 Influences of Dietary Guidelines

1. Consumer dietary changes (Less fat and red meat, more fruits and veggies)
2. Health Focus (Reduce chronic disease, boost intake of nutrients ie calcium, fiber, Vitamin A/C, Potassium)
3. C.A.M.(Complimentary and Alternative Medicine)

34

Conventional (Whole) Foods

Foods that are minimally processed

35

Fortified Foods

Wasn't there, added it in

36

Enriched Foods

Was there, processing took it out, so they put it back in

37

Enhanced Foods

Made it better (ie added protein)

38

The 4 types of functional foods

Conventional Foods, Modified Foods, Medical Foods, Foods for special dietary use

39

Benefits of conventional food

Cancer risk reduction, heart health, intestinal health maintenance (probiotics), Urinary tract function (cranberry juice lowers bacteria concentration in urine)

40

Modified Foods

Modified through fortification, enrichment, or enhancement

41

Medical Foods

Formulated for specific management of a disease/condition, administered and managed by physician, not available via retail sale.

42

Foods for Special Dietary Use

Available via retail sale, baby formula, lactose-free food, reduced acid coffee, weight reduction (slim fast, special k)

43

Nutrigenomics

Focused on genetically-determined biochemical pathways linking specific dietary substances with health and disease. Enables people to select certain foods for optimal health or reduced risk of chronic disease.

44

To maintain a healthy weight, women should consume approximately _____ calories each day

1600

45

To maintain a healthy weight, men should consume approximately ________calories each day

2400-2600

46

Calories "In Balance"

Calories Consumed = Calories Burned

47

Calories "In Excess"

Calories Consumed > Calories Burned

48

Calories "In Deficit"

Calories Consumed < Calories Burned

49

4 Cultural influences of food habits

Ethnic infuences, place of birth, geography and climate, manners

50

Food & Christianity

No specific food taboos; significance attached to certain foods such as fish

51

Foods & Buddhism

Considered uncompassionate to eat the flesh of another living creature; vegetarianism often allowed

52

Foods & Hinduism

Soul is all-important, uniting all beings as one; cow is sacred; vegetarianism promoted among some, not all, followers

53

Foods & Seventh Day Adventist Church

Vegetarianism is recommended; between meal snacks are discouraged

54

Foods & Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormon Church)

Vegetarianism is supported; no alcohol, tea, coffee, caffeine; discouragement of alcohol and illegal drugs

55

Foods & Islam

Halal dietary food laws; no animals, blood, improper slaughtering, carrion, intoxicants

56

Foods & Judaism

The Kashruth - Dietary laws adhered to by orthodox Jews; three food groups: meat, dairy, and pareve (neither meat nor dairy); allowed: kosher animals; not allowed: blood, mixing meat and milk

57

9 Psychological & Sociological Criteria in Food Selection

Sense of security, Social Conscience/Peer Pressure, Display of Status/hospitality, Informational Influences (advertising), Environmentally sound foods, GMOs, Organic Foods, Natural Food, Cost

58

USDA Criteria for a "Natural" Food

1)Does not contain an artificial ingredient, a chemical preservative, or any other synthetic/artificial ingredient.
2)Product and it's ingredients are minimally processed

59

S.N.A.P.

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formerly the Food Stamp Program)

60

Thrifty Food Plan

Calculates what an average family needs to spend on food

61

100% Organic

100% made of organic material; may use USDA organic stamp

62

Organic

95% made of organic material; may use USDA organic stamp

63

Made with Organic Ingredients

70% or more of product is made of organic material; No stamp, but can say "made with organic ingredients"

64

Contains Organic Ingredients

70% or less of product is organic; No stamp; Can only list organic ingredients in nutritional facts