Flashcards in Chapter 9 Fish And Shellfish Deck (54):
What is the only major food source still hunted?
Fish and shellfish
The presence of a backbone indicates that the animal is a _________
The two types of vertebrae
Finfish and sea mammals
How do finfish receive oxygen?
Through their gills
How do sea mammals obtain their oxygen?
Surface of water/air
This classification of fish/shellfish have no backbone
Name the two types of invertebrae
Shellfish (crustaceans and mollusks) & cephalopods (octopus and squid)
What is a crustacean?
Soft (segmented) body in hard outer shell
What is a mollusk?
Soft segmented body within a shell (ie clams, muscles, oysters)
Distinguish the fish/shellfish of saltwater vs freshwater
In saltwater, they have more distinct flavors. In freshwater youll find fish like catfish and halibut
Lean fish have how many g of fat?
Fatty fish have how many grams of fat?
Moderately fatty fish have between ___ & ____ grams of total fat
What are the 3 things that make finfish tender?
Collagen, amino acid content, and muscle structure
Fish are approximately _____% collagen (compared to meat which is 15%)
The higher/lower the amino acid content, the less ______ there is, which provides structure.
Hydroxyproline provides _____
Higher fat content of a fish lightens/darkens the color of the fish flesh.
The more oxygen required in a fish, the more/less myoglobin is in there.
What makes a fish's flesh flaky?
Short muscle fibers
What area of the fish is the red flesh found? What is it high in?
Toward the tail; high myoglobin, high unsaturated fat, and slow twitch muscle fibers
What area of the fish is more white flesh found? What is is high and low in?
Between nose and tail; has more fast twitch muscle fibers, less myoglobin
How long are the short muscle fibers of a fish?
< 1 inch long
Myotomes are made up of ______, which are ______.
Myocommata; they are connectibe tissue that is low in hydroxyproline
The _________ have a gel forming ability which helps ________
Fish protein of myotomes; helps break down myocommata which makes the fish flake
Polyunsaccharated fatty acid
Fish is high in ______ fatty acids which help people with ______
Omega 3; inflammation
It is recommended to eat fish at least _______ per week
2x per week
Is inspection and grading of fish voluntary or involuntary?
Grading of fish is based on:
Wholesomeness and if it was raised in good conditions
National Marine Fisheries Service
How should you select your finfish from the grocery store?
Base selection on appearance (pink gills, eyes still popping out, black pupils, no slime), odor (should smell like ocean not fishy), touch (press on the fish and it should bounce back, if not then its old)
Define a fish as: whole, drawn, dressed, steaks, fillets, fish sticks
Whole= whole fish, drawn= guts removed, dressed= head, tail, fin, and scales removed, steaks= cut dressed fish from top to bottom, fillets= sliced lengthwise
What is wholesomeness?
Being able to safely eat it
The three omega 3 fatty acids
PUFA, EPA, & DHA
Caviar is high in _____
Tissue being already broken before you buy it is a sign of ____
Mercury is a ________ that attacks ________
Neurotoxin; nerves and developing tissue
______ is highly toxic to humans and mammals
Name the four fish most likely to have mercury? Why do they have more mercury than other fish?
Shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish. Because they are at the top of the food chain, live longer, and have more time to absorb the mercury from the water.
Who should limit their consumption of fish with mercury? What should it be limited to?
Pregnant women, children under 8 years of age, women who are lactating, and women thinking of becoming pregnant
Sardines are high in _____ and _____
Ca (because you eat the bones), and omega 3 fatty acids
Different species of fish mushed together (such as surimi which is imitation crab)
What is the R month rule?
Shellfish can only be eaten in the months that contain the letter R because the other months are too hot which promotes microbial growth
How do you select mollusks?
They must be alive, they must be closed (partially open gives more chance for microbes, and they might be dead if its open), and they need to open after cooking. Do not open and eat a shellfish if it is still tightly closed after cooking
How do you open an oyster?
Hold oyster flatter shell up, with a folded towel, and place the top of the knife near the hinge at the pointed end. Move the tip of the knife around to the front side. Pry and push the tip to bore into the shell until it pops open.
Differentiate between a male and female lobster. Which one is preferred and why? What is the delicacy found in the male? Delicacy in the female?
Females are preferred (they have a finer color and contain eggs called coral which are a delicacy). Delicacy in a male is the green liver.
How to peel a shrimp
Hold upside down and by the tail to peel it, devein it by slitting a shallow line down its back, pull out vein with tip and rinse with cold running water
Dry heat preparation methods for fish
Baking, broiling, grilling, frying, sautéed, and deep fried
What is napping/masking the fish?
Covering the whole top of the fish with sauce
What is 'stripping the fish'?
Covering just the middle section of the fish with sauce
How do you pool a fish?
Put sauce completely underneath the fish
Moist heat preparation methods for fish. Which one shoukd you never do and why? Talk about raw fish
Poaching, simmering, steaming, clambakes, microwaving. Never boil because it will disintegrate the fish. CDC encourages people to never eat raw fish, but ceviche is ok since it has a lot of acid.