Flashcards in Chapter 10 Milk Deck (56):
What are the seven milk ingredients used in the food industry?
Casein, caseinates, hydrolysates, lactose, MPC (milk protein concentrate) and MPI (milk protein isolate), whey powder, and whey protein isolates
What is casein?
Its like an immitation cheese
What are caseinates?
Caseins with salt added. Salt is added to make it more water soluble. It is used in many things like soup.
What are hydrolysates?
Milk proteins that have hydrolyzed (gone through hydrolysis). It increases solubility.
Used in processed meats to keep/improve the texture
What is MPC and MPI?
Used in baby formulas and sports industry
What is whey powder?
Crystallized whey, high in lactose. Used for infant formulas
What are whey protein isolates?
VERY concentrated whey (nutrition bars / sports nutrition products)
Water is ___% of milk, and milk solids make up ____% of milk
Water 87.4%, milk solids 12.6%
Nonfat milk solids make up what percentage of milk?
Milk is ___% milk fat
Lactose takes up ___% of milk
Minerals take up ___% of milk
Protein takes up ___% of milk
Casein protein takes up ___% of milk
Whey protein takes up ___% of milk
What is the pH of milk?
The carbohydrates in milk are ____
The protein in milk is the ____ & _____
Casein and whey
Used to make cheeses, a bacteria in milk produces this
Fat in milk contributes to _____, consists of ______, allowing it to disperse into fluids
USDA stands for
US Department of Agriculture
_______ makes milk orange
There are ____mg of Ca per cup of milk
Why do we not use glass bottles for milk anymore?
UV light diminishes the riboflavin
What is added to the milk?
PGH (probiotic growth hormone) and riboflavin
Describe grade A milk
Must be pasteurized and has the least amount of bacteria
Grading of milk is based on_____
Boiling point kills_____
This is a method where you heat the milk to kill the bacteria
What is homogenization?
Separation of water and fat, mechanical process where high pressure pumps milk to separate fat globules & disperses them evenly (does not alter nutritional content)
Why do people use homogenization?
It makes milk brighter and creamier
Name the three enzymes in milk and what they do
Lipase- breaks down fat
Protease- breaks down protein
Alkaline Phosphatase- enzymes used to test pasteurization
Name the 5 types of pasteurization and their temperatures
Low Temp Longer Time(30 sec)- 145 deg F
High Temp Short Time(15 sec)- 161 deg F
High Heat Shorter Time(.01 sec)- 212 deg F
Ultrapasteurization(2+ sec)- 280 deg F
Ultra High Temp(2-6 sec)- 280-302 deg F
Describe whole milk, 2% milk, 1% milk, Skim Milk, Raw Milk, Carbonated Milk
Whole milk = higher fat
2% = reduced fat milk
1% = light milk
Skim = fat-free milk, no more than 0.5% fat
Raw Milk = Not pastuerized or homogenized
Carbonated = Bubbly
Animals whose milk we drink (besides cows)
Goats, Sheep, Camel, Reindeer, Water Buffalo
Cultured milk products are made by ____
Adding bacteria to it
Most common bacteria used to ferment/culture milk products
Staph. Aureus % Lactobacilus Bulgarius
What temperature keeps live culture alive? Which temperature kills live culure?
Cold keeps alive, heat kills
When more acid is added to the milk, what happens to the proteins?
Milk protein decreases, therefore it clumps
What happens to the protein was less acid is added to milk?
What is used to make eggnog?
Egg yolk solid
Describe imitation milk, filled milk, and low sodium milk
imitation=little/no dairy (water and cornsyrup)
filled=milk fat is taken out and replaced with oil/veg fat
reduced lactose milk
use lactase to break lactose into glucose and galactose
Is rice milk gluten free?
Almond milk is made of ____
Dry milk + steam, makes it flake, easier to clump together
Evaporated (Canned) Milk
60% water is taken out
Sweetened (Canned) Condensed Milk
Water is taken out, 15% more sugar is put back in
Why does cream not need to be sterilized?
Because it has such a high sugar content ( which bacteria don't favor)
Exposure to ______ changes the chemical profile of milk. That is why we no longer put milk in glass bottles, because the UV light destroys the ______.
_____ increases stability of whipped cream, and high ______ content makes it whip nicely
cooler temp= _____ viscosity
From stomach lining of calf, used as an enzyme to coagulate milk
Should you cook milk in high or low heat?
Low (never high temps!)