Chapter 10 Milk Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Milk Deck (56):
0

What are the seven milk ingredients used in the food industry?

Casein, caseinates, hydrolysates, lactose, MPC (milk protein concentrate) and MPI (milk protein isolate), whey powder, and whey protein isolates

1

What is casein?

Its like an immitation cheese

2

What are caseinates?

Caseins with salt added. Salt is added to make it more water soluble. It is used in many things like soup.

3

What are hydrolysates?

Milk proteins that have hydrolyzed (gone through hydrolysis). It increases solubility.

4

Lactose

Used in processed meats to keep/improve the texture

5

What is MPC and MPI?

Used in baby formulas and sports industry

6

What is whey powder?

Crystallized whey, high in lactose. Used for infant formulas

7

What are whey protein isolates?

VERY concentrated whey (nutrition bars / sports nutrition products)

8

Water is ___% of milk, and milk solids make up ____% of milk

Water 87.4%, milk solids 12.6%

9

Nonfat milk solids make up what percentage of milk?

8.9%

10

Milk is ___% milk fat

3.7%

11

Lactose takes up ___% of milk

4.8%

12

Minerals take up ___% of milk

0.7%

13

Protein takes up ___% of milk

3.4%

14

Casein protein takes up ___% of milk

2.8%

15

Whey protein takes up ___% of milk

0.5%

16

What is the pH of milk?

6.6

17

The carbohydrates in milk are ____

Lactose

18

The protein in milk is the ____ & _____

Casein and whey

19

Used to make cheeses, a bacteria in milk produces this

Lactic acid

20

Fat in milk contributes to _____, consists of ______, allowing it to disperse into fluids

Stability; triglycerides

21

USDA stands for

US Department of Agriculture

22

_______ makes milk orange

Corotonoid compound

23

There are ____mg of Ca per cup of milk

300

24

Why do we not use glass bottles for milk anymore?

UV light diminishes the riboflavin

25

What is added to the milk?

PGH (probiotic growth hormone) and riboflavin

26

Describe grade A milk

Must be pasteurized and has the least amount of bacteria

27

Grading of milk is based on_____

Bacterial content

28

Boiling point kills_____

Pathogenic bacteria

29

This is a method where you heat the milk to kill the bacteria

Pasteurization

30

What is homogenization?

Separation of water and fat, mechanical process where high pressure pumps milk to separate fat globules & disperses them evenly (does not alter nutritional content)

31

Why do people use homogenization?

It makes milk brighter and creamier

32

Name the three enzymes in milk and what they do

Lipase- breaks down fat
Protease- breaks down protein
Alkaline Phosphatase- enzymes used to test pasteurization

33

Name the 5 types of pasteurization and their temperatures

Low Temp Longer Time(30 sec)- 145 deg F
High Temp Short Time(15 sec)- 161 deg F
High Heat Shorter Time(.01 sec)- 212 deg F
Ultrapasteurization(2+ sec)- 280 deg F
Ultra High Temp(2-6 sec)- 280-302 deg F

34

Describe whole milk, 2% milk, 1% milk, Skim Milk, Raw Milk, Carbonated Milk

Whole milk = higher fat
2% = reduced fat milk
1% = light milk
Skim = fat-free milk, no more than 0.5% fat
Raw Milk = Not pastuerized or homogenized
Carbonated = Bubbly

35

Animals whose milk we drink (besides cows)

Goats, Sheep, Camel, Reindeer, Water Buffalo

36

Cultured milk products are made by ____

Adding bacteria to it

37

Most common bacteria used to ferment/culture milk products

Staph. Aureus % Lactobacilus Bulgarius

38

What temperature keeps live culture alive? Which temperature kills live culure?

Cold keeps alive, heat kills

39

When more acid is added to the milk, what happens to the proteins?

Milk protein decreases, therefore it clumps

40

What happens to the protein was less acid is added to milk?

Proteins precipitate

41

What is used to make eggnog?

Egg yolk solid

43

Describe imitation milk, filled milk, and low sodium milk

imitation=little/no dairy (water and cornsyrup)
filled=milk fat is taken out and replaced with oil/veg fat

44

reduced lactose milk

use lactase to break lactose into glucose and galactose

45

Is rice milk gluten free?

No

46

Almond milk is made of ____

ground almonds

47

Instant milk

Dry milk + steam, makes it flake, easier to clump together

48

Evaporated (Canned) Milk

60% water is taken out

49

Sweetened (Canned) Condensed Milk

Water is taken out, 15% more sugar is put back in

50

Why does cream not need to be sterilized?

Because it has such a high sugar content ( which bacteria don't favor)

51

Exposure to ______ changes the chemical profile of milk. That is why we no longer put milk in glass bottles, because the UV light destroys the ______.

light; riboflavin

52

_____ increases stability of whipped cream, and high ______ content makes it whip nicely

Sugar; fat

53

cooler temp= _____ viscosity

high

54

Renin

From stomach lining of calf, used as an enzyme to coagulate milk

55

Should you cook milk in high or low heat?

Low (never high temps!)

56

Refrigerated milk can be good for up to ______

3 weeks