Chapter 1 - Genes And Heredity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Genes And Heredity Deck (16):
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Gene

Unit of heredity; portion of DNA, chromosomes coded for specific protein; every cell contains the same genes; expression determined by environmental factors (molecules within and nearby the cell); maintain structural identity from one generation to another

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Chromosomes

Strands of genes, come in pairs

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DNA

Double stranded molecules; strand of DNA serves as template for synthesis of RNA; contains 4 "bases": adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine

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RNA

Single strand chemical; messenger RNA template for synthesis of protein molecule; amino acids form basis for proteins; proteins become part of body's structure, others are enzymes

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Enzymes

Biological catalysts that regulate chemical reactions in the body

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Protein synthesis

-ase means enzyme = protein; after proteins made, some are stored, some transported; contribute to structure and function of cell; DNA transcribed by mRNA, mRNA translated in ribosomes, proteins made from joining amino acids together

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Homozygous

Identical pair of genes of 2 chromosomes

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Heterozygous

Unmatched pair of genes on 2 chromosomes

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Mutation

Affects single amino acid, RARE change in a SINGLE GENE

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Recombination

New COMBO OF GENES not in either parent that occurs ALL THE TIME

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Epigenetics

Studies change in gene expression without modification of DNA sequence; some genes only active at certain point in one's life (pregnancy); these are particularly susceptible to epigenetic modification

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Dominant gene

Shows strong effect in homozygous or heterozygous condition

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Epigenetic effects

Histone proteins bind bNA into a shape, like string wound around a ball; for gene to be activated, histones must loosen "grip" on bNA; one's environment can modulate intracellular environment

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Recessive gene

Only shows effect in homozygous condition

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Autosomal genes

All other chromosomes except sex-linked genes

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Sex-linked genes

Genes on sex chromosomes X & Y