Chapter 4 - Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Anatomy Deck (78):
1

Nerve

bundle of axons in PNS

2

Tract

bundle of axons in CNS

3

Ganglion

collection of neuron cell bodies in PNS

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Nucleus

collection of neuron cell bodies in CNS

5

White matter

brain region largely occupied by tracts, CNS, white because its myelinated

6

Grey matter

brain regions largely occupied by cell bodies, grayish color because aren't myelinated

7

fiber

axon

8

spinal nerves

31 pairs in human

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Types of spinal nerves:

cervical, thoratic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal

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Cervical

8 pairs, the most rostral, anterior, neck region

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thoratic

12 pairs, chest cavity

12

lumbar

5 pairs, abdominal-like region

13

sacral

5 pairs, lower body

14

coccygeal

1 pairs, comes off tailbone

15

dermatome

region of skin area innervated by particular spinal nerve

16

dorsal roots

sensory portion of nerve that branches close to the cord and enters it dorsally (on backside)

17

dorsal root ganglia

in PNS, next to spinal cod, ganglia for each pair of nerves; swellings close to the dorsal cord that house the cell bodies of the axons in dorsal roots

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dorsal horn

gray matter in dorsal core of spinal cord that contains the cell bodies on which collaterals or dorsal root axons synapse

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ventral roots

gray matter in ventral core of spinal cord that contains cell bodies of motor neurons supplying axons in peripheral nerves

20

How many cranial nerves?

12

21

Cranial nerves

similar to spinal nerves except it connects head receptors and effectors directly to brain; each nerve numbered based on point of entry

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How many nerves devoted to movement of eye muscles

3

23

How many nerves devoted to taste?

3

24

Some cranial nerves except which carry axons that are part of AutonomicNS

the vagus

25

sympathetic

contribute to physiologial response to emergency, potentially life-threatening situations; fight-or-flight

26

parasympathetic

helps to maintain relatively steady-state in basic bodily functions

27

sympathetic functions

increase heart rate, increases respiration, increases blood pressure, increases sweating, dilates pupils, takes energy away from digestion

28

parasympathetic functions

decreases everything, constricts pupils, promotes digestion

29

polygraph measures what?

respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, galvanic skin response (activation of sweating)

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meninges

3-layer sac encasing brain and spinal chord

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Dura mater

outer most layer

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arachnoid

middle layer. cerebral spinal fluid fills space underneath

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pia mater

inner most layer

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Ventricles

cavity section

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Lateral Ventricles

located in core of each cerebral hemisphere; filled with cerebral spinal fluid

36

3rd ventricle

receives fluid from lateral ventricles, located along midline separating large portion of diencephalon.

37

cerebral aqueduct

tube-like structure in midline of midbrain and hindbrain connecting 3rd and 4th ventricles

38

4th ventricle

located along midline of hindbrain. cerebral spinal fluid flows out of here by 2 routes: central canal of spinal cord, and subarachnoid space

39

Central canal

tube-like structure in core of spinal cord

40

Cerehrospinal fluid

filtrate of the blood made by cells lining ventricles

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choroid plexus

cells lining the ventricle; mostly water and is isotonic with blood plasma

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Hydrocephalus

condition in which CSF is obstructed at cerebral aqueduct during gestational development. Ventricles expand causing pressure on forebrain and results in mental retardation

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medulla

critical; control respiration, heart rate, visceral reflexes (salivation, vomiting, coughing, gagging, swallowing, and chewing). receives sensory input from several cranial nerves

44

reticular formation

network of cells, important in general arousal and some brainstem reflexes. involved in control of movement

45

pons

area of fibers destined for cerebellum, crossing from one side of the brain to the other

46

cerebellum

involved in sensorimotor integration, motor timing, balance, learning

47

tectum

involved in auditory and visual procession. includes superior colliculus and inferior colliculus

48

substantia nigra

nucleus contains dopaminergic cells that project to the basal ganglia. cells degenerate in Parkinson's disease

49

thalamus

sensory processing. all sensory systems, except olfactory, for synapse in thalamus before projecting to cortex

50

hypothalamus

performs homeostatic functions (feeing, drinking, etc)

51

olfactory bulbs

involved in smell. considered part of limbic system

52

limbic system

surrounds brainstem, includes hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus. olfactory bulb and hypothalamus, important in memory, emotional and motivated behaviors

53

basal ganglia

subcortical structures involved w/ motor planning. 3 major structures: caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus

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hippocampus

large structure between thalamus and neocortex, very important role in memory

55

neocortex

invaginated structure on surface of brain. higher order processing of sensory information, sensorimotor integration, language, and motor control. important in typically human behavior

56

corpus callosum

major fiber tract, axons cross from one cerebral hemisphere to the other,

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anterior commisure

similar to corpus callosum but smaller

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cerebral neocortex

ridges of neocortex are gyri and grooves are sulci

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significance of invaginated structure

increased surface area

60

how many layers in neocortex composed of

6

61

4 lobes of the brain

frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital

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Frontal

planning of movements, memory, emotions

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parietal

body sensations

64

temporal

hearing advanced visual processing

65

occipital

vision

66

computerized axial tomography (CAT)

map brain areas, requires exposure to x-rays

67

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

map areas in detail, using magnetic fields

68

electroencephalograph (EEG)

records from scalp, measures by ms, low resolution on location of signal

69

evoked potentials

similar to EEG, in response to stimuli

70

Magnetoencephalograph (MEG)

similar to EEG, measures magnetic fields

71

Positron emission Tomograph (PET)

measures changes over time and location but requires exposing brain to radiation

72

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

measures changes over about 1 second, identifies location within 1-2 mins, no use of radiation

73

lesion

controlled damage in lab animals

74

ablation

removal of brain area

75

gene-knockout

effects wherever that gene is active

76

transcranial magnetic stimulation

intense application temporarily inactivates a brain area

77

Stimulating electrodes

invasive, used with lab animals, seldom humans

78

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

brief, mild application activates underlying brain area