Chapter 5: Development and Plasticity and Chapter 6: Vision Flashcards Preview

Brain And Behavior > Chapter 5: Development and Plasticity and Chapter 6: Vision > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5: Development and Plasticity and Chapter 6: Vision Deck (32):
1

Neural tube

fluid-filled cavity results in CNS development

2

differentiation

process makes one neuron different from another; beings as neuron is migrating, is also dependent on local environment of target destination. Axon develop first and cell shape and dendrites develop once neuron reaches target site

3

Proliferation

cells lining ventricles divide

4

Migration

proliferating cells migrate toward destinations in CNS.

5

Migration is guided by what?

immunoglobins, chemokines, radial glia

6

Myelination

production of myelin sheaths around axons. first occurs in spinal cord, then hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain. occurs gradually for decades

7

Synaptogenesis

formation of new synapses. occurs throughout life

8

Neurotrophins

chemicals that promote neuron survival and growth

9

Types of Neurotrophins

nerve growth factor, brain derived neurotropic, neurotrophins 3, 4/5, and 6

10

Apoptosis

programmed cell death

11

behavioral compensation

subject learns to use remaining portions of NS to compensate for damage

12

Phantom limb

continuation of sensation of an amputated body part

13

Denervation and Disuse supersensitivity

heightened sensitivity to a neurotransmitter after the destruction of an incoming axon or inactivity

14

potential mechanisms

up-regulation of receptor proteins; up-regulation of a following cascade component (ion channels, secondary messengers)

15

Ischemia

Most common type of stroke; resulting from blood clot or obstruction of an artery. Neurons lose oxygen and glucose supply

16

Hemorrhage

less frequent type of stroke; results from ruptured artery. Neurons flooded with excess calcium, oxygen, and other products

17

Edema

the accumulation of fluid in brain resulting in increased pressure on the brain & increasing probability of strokes

18

Ischema & Hemorrhage may cause:

Edema & disruption of sodium-potassium pump leading to accumulation of sodium ions inside neurons

19

Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)

breaks up blood clots and reduces the effects of an ischemic stroke

20

penumbra

region that surrounds the immediate damage

21

Cannabinoids (pot)

potentially minimize cell loss through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions

22

One of most effective lab methods to minimize stroke damage

cooling the brain

23

Sensory Receptors

organs that are in your body, mostly on surface, that allow external world to communicate with your brain

24

Types of Sensory Receptors

Chemoreceptors; Mechanoreceptors; Thermal Receptors; Pain Receptors; Light Receptors

25

Adequate Stimulus

sensory receptors are “tuned” to respond best to a certain type of stimulus energy.

26

Generator Potential

a graded potential produced in some types of receptor cells

27

Sensory Adaptation

receptors reduce their sensitivity if continuously stimulated

28

Reception

first physical interaction between the stimulus energy and sensory receptor

29

Transduction

conversion of physical energy of stimulus into an electrochemical response

30

Coding

correspondence between some aspect of the physical stimulus and aspect of neural activity

31

intensity

strength of the stimulus. represented by rate of action potentials

32

quality

type of stimulus. can include variety of stimulus features over and beyond intensity